Biology Midterm Vocabulary

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Biology Midterm Vocabulary
2012-01-26 23:26:45
Biology Midterm Vocabulary

Biology Midterm Vocabulary
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  1. Science
    An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
  2. Observation
    Process of gathering information about events or processes in a carefully, orderly way
  3. Data
    Evidence and information gathered from observations and include quantitative data (Obtained by counting or measuring and is expressed as numbers) and qualitative data( Descriptive and involve characteristics that usually be counted)
  4. Problem Statment
    a clear description of the issue, which includes a vision, issue statement and a method that can be used to solve the problem
  5. Hypothesis
    A proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations
  6. Independent Variable
    A factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment (ex. Time, temperature, concentration, etc.) and is usually what will affect the dependent variable (X-axis)
  7. Dependent Variable
    What you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment and it responds to the independent variable (Y-axis)
  8. Control
    A variable that remains unchanged or held constant to prevent its effects on the outcome and therefore may verify the behavior of and the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. They are important because they keep the outcome of the experiment valid.
  9. Data Table
    A table is both a mode of visual communication and also a means of arranging data which helps analyze the data
  10. Characteristics of Living Things
    • Made up of cells
    • Reproduce
    • Based on a universal genetic code
    • Grow and develop
    • Obtain and use materials and energy
    • Respond to their environment
    • Maintain a stable internal environment
    • Taken as a group, living things change over time
  11. Bonds
    • ·A force of attraction that holds atoms or ions together in a molecule or crystal and are usually created by a transfer or sharing of electrons. They can be single, double, and triple bonded and other types of bonds include covalent and ionic bonds
    • ·Ionic bond: Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
    • Covalent bond: Forms when electrons are shared between atoms
  12. Water
    • Single most abundant compound in most living things
    • Liquid at the temperatures found over much of Earth's surface
    • Expands as it freezes
    • Ice is less dense than liquid water
    • Molecule is neutral
    • Polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
    • Positive pole: Between hydrogen atoms
    • Negative pole: Near the oxygen atom
  13. pH
    A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of solution. <7 (acid), 7 (neutral), >7 (base)
  14. Monomer
    A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
  15. Polymer
    A molecular structure that is built up of numerous monomers bonded together
  16. Dehydration Synthesis
    Chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule and it is when two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide
  17. Hydrolysis
    Water is recombined with the two hydroxyl groups and the disaccharide goes back to two monosaccharides and is the reverse reaction of dehydration synthesis
  18. Organic Compound
    The compounds containing carbon that are typically found in living systems
  19. Macromolecule
    A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many atoms together
  20. Carbohydrates
    Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms and is the major source of energy for the human body
  21. Lipids
    Macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms: includes fats, oils, and waxes
  22. Nucleic Acids
    Macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
  23. Protein
    Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and is needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
  24. Enzyme
    Protein that acts as a biological catalyst
  25. Catalyst
    Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
  26. Prokaryotic
    Unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
  27. Eukaryotic
    Organism whose cells contain nuclei
  28. Nucleus
    The center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell’s DNA and controls the cell’s activities
  29. Cytoplasm
    The center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell’s DNA and controls the cell’s activities
  30. Cell Wall
    Strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae and some bacteria
  31. Chloroplast
    Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
  32. Mitochondria
    Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
  33. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
  34. Ribosomes
    Small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled and are made up of RNA and protein
  35. Vacuoles
    Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
  36. Golgi Apparatus
    Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
  37. Lysosome
    Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
  38. Plant Cell
    Eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms because it has a vacuole and a cell wall
  39. Animal Cell
    Form of eukaryotic cell that makes up many tissues in animals and it lacks cell walls and chloroplasts and has smaller vacuoles
  40. Bacteria Cell
    A member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms lacking organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease
  41. Cell Membrane Structure
    Composition of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called a lipid bilayer (along with proteins) which gives the cell membrane a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings
  42. Diffusion
    Process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
  43. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
  44. Active Transport
    Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
  45. Endocytosis
    Process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
  46. Exocytosis
    Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
  47. Bacteria
    Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
  48. Viruses
    Particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells
  49. Antiobiotics
    Compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria
  50. Photosynthesis
    • Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy tooo C6H12O6 + 6O2
  51. Cellular Respiration
    • Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 too 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
  52. Cell Divison
    Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
  53. Mitosis
    Division of the cell nucleus. Includes Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
  54. Interphase
    Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
  55. Cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
  56. Meiosis
    Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
  57. Gamete
    Specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
  58. Zygote
    Fertilized egg
  59. Somatic Cells
    Any biological cell forming the body of an organism in a multi-cellular organism and fuse during sexual reproduction
  60. Chromosome
    Organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells and is a single piece of coiled DNA and also contain DNA-bound proteins which serve to package the DNA and control its functions
  61. Gene
    Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
  62. Allele
    One of a number of different forms of a gene
  63. Homozygous
    Term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
  64. Heterozygous
    Term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
  65. Genotype
    Genetic makeup of an organism
  66. Phenotype
    Physical characteristics of an organism
  67. Punnett Squares
    Diagram showing the gene combination that might result from a genetic cross
  68. Dominant
    One gene is masking the other gene and is the main trait
  69. Recessive
    Is masked by the dominant gene and isn’t seen as often
  70. Codominance
    Situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
  71. Incomplete Dominance
    Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
  72. Multipe Alleles
    Three or more alleles of the same gene
  73. Polygenic Traits
    Trait controlled by two or more genes
  74. Determining sex (m/f) in humans
    X and Y chromosome are the deciding factor. XX-Female XY-Male
  75. Sex-linked Traits
    Gene located on the X or Y chromosome
  76. Environmental Influence
    Climate, soil conditions, and availability of water are examples of how interaction between genes and the environment can change characteristics
  77. DNA
    Also known as deoxyribonucleic acid and it is a nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
  78. Nucleotide
    Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  79. Base Pairing
    Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
  80. Replication
    Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
  81. Transcription
    Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
  82. Translation
    Decoding of a mRNA message into a poly-peptide chain
  83. Protein Synthesis
    The process by which amino acids are linearly arranged into proteins through the involvement of ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA, and various enzymes