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what was a delta?
an area at the mouth of a river, often triangle shaped, made up of silt deposits.
what is a cataract?
rocky stretches marked by swift currents and rapids.
how did a delta effect life in Egypt?
it had the richest most fertile soils.
how did the cataracts effect life in Egypt?
people from the areas south of Egypt use the nile as an easy invasion route because of the dangerous currents and falls.
why was the nile so important to Egypt?
it was their scource for water, food, and protection. it was what they based their civilization on.
why do historians consider the unification of Egypt under Menes the beginning of Egyptian civilization?
- ruler of UPPER Egypt conqured the North.
- founded the city of Memphis, the capitol of the unified Egypt
- addopted the symbols of both upper and lower Egypt - the cobra and the vulture - adopted the traditional red and white crown colors of the two kingdoms - made 1st dynasty
what are the purposes of the Old Kingdom pyramids?
they were built as tombs for Egypt's rulers.
how did the preception of pharaohs as gods add to their power?
- people thought the pharaoh was responsible for Egypt's prospairity
- the pharaoh and his priests had to perform rituals everyday to ensure the sun would rise, the Nile would flood, and crops would grow.
- for his role in keeping Egypt safe and secure, people honored the Pharaoh.
how coulda bureaucracy increase the speed and efficiency to which a government opperates?
because it was the pharaoh's close relatives and friends made up most of the officials.
the most powerful was the vizier which was usually a close family member to the pharaoh
what led to the end of the middle kingdom?
the middle kingdom fell to invaders around 1650 BC, the raiders from Syria "hyksos" invaded the Nile delta and conqured lower Egypt.
what military technologies were unknown tin Egypt that the "hyksos" used to defeat them?
horse drawn chariot, armour, and a strong bow.
why were pharaohs able to increase trae during the middle kingdom?
pharaohs sent armies to protect these routes, as part of the protection the Egyptians built fortresses all along the Nile river.
for what deeds is Hatshepsut best known for?
she is best know for a huge trade expidition she sent to Punt ( a kingdom on the Red Sea). the expidition returned to Egypt with gold, myrrh, apes, and other wild animals.
for what deeds are Akhenaten known for?
he made them become monotheistic only worshiping Aten
he ordered the gods images be destroyed
a group of rulers from the same family?
Kushite ruler who conqured Egypt?
female ruler in Egypt who encouraged the expasion of trade
the process of making mummies
ruler who united upper and lower Egypt?
a highly structured organization run by officials
to refine metal so it can be worked?
why was Egypt called the gift of the nile?
that the nile brought water to the fields with no or little rain
what systems of writing did the Egyptians invent?
hieroglyphics used for formal writing & religious texts.
hieratic used for religious texts.
demotic used for legal and literary writings.
why did egyptians make mummies and bury them with their treasures?
they believed that the "ka" would shrivle and vanish if the body decomposed. and they buried them with all the treasures they were believed to need in the afterlife
what were two elements of egyptian culture adopted by the Kushites?
they had their bodies mummified and buried in pyramids
they adopted hieroglyphics
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