Topic 11 - Human Health and Physiology
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What does a tendon do?
Attaches muscle to bone
What do ligaments do?
Attaches bone to bone (restricts movement at joints and helps to prevent dislocation)
What are muscles?
Provide the force needed for muscle contraction. Enable you to move your skeleton. They can only contract or relax.
What is cartilage for?
Reduces friction between bones where they meet.
What is synovial fluid?
Lubricates the joint to reduce friction.
What is the joint capsule?
It seals the joint and holds in the synovial fluid.
What is flexion?
Bending of a joint (think of a knee)
What is extension?
Straigtening a joint (think of a knee)
What kind of joint is the knee?
A hinge joint.
What kind of joint is a hip joint?
- Allows movement in 3 planes
What cell in our body has many nuclei (multi-nucleate?)
Muscle fibre cells.
Describe the process of blood clotting.
Clotting factors are released from platelets and damaged cells resulting in the formation of thrombin. Thrombin catalyses the conversion of soluble fibrinogen into the fibrous protein fibrin, which captures blood cells.
What is active immunity?
The immunity due to the production of antibodies by the organism itself after the body’s defence mechanisms have been stimulated by antigens.
What is passive immunity?
- It is immunity due to the acquisition of antibodies from another organism in which active immunity has been stimulated, including
- via theplacenta
- colostrum (in breast milk)
- injection of antibodies.
What are the parts in the diagram?
- 1 = oesophagus
- 2 = pancreas
- 3 = small intestine (duodenum and then ileum)
- 4 = gall bladder
- 5 = stomach
- 6 = rectum
- 7 = anus
- 8 = salivary glands
- 9 = bile duct
- 10 = large intestine (colon)
- 11 = appendix
- 12 = liver
What is unusual about the PULMONARY VEIN?
Veins normally carry deoxygenated blood, but in this case, it brings oxygenated blood to the heart.
Which nerve slows down heart rate?
Which nerve speeds up heart rate?
Name the parts of the heart
- 1 = superior vena cava (vein carrying deoxy blood)
- 2 = right atrium
- 3 = atrio-ventricular valve OR tricuspid valve
- 4 = right ventricle (note: thin wall as only pumping to lungs)
- 5 = aorta (massive artery taking blood all round body)
- 6 = pulmonary artery (taking blood to lungs)
- 7 = left atrium
- 8 = atrio-ventricular valve OR bicuspid valve
- 9 = left ventricle
- 10 = VERY thick wall as pumping round body
Which is the correct sequence of the stages of fertilization?
penetration of the egg membrane
acrosome reaction -> penetration of the egg membrane -> cortical reaction
Where does an egg normally get fertilized?
In the fallopian tube
What is the role of ligaments?
Holds bone to bone together
What is the role of tendons?
- Holds muscle to bone
- Muscles are TENDER when you work them out. Sounds a bit like TENDON.
What is clonal selection?
The mitotic division of B cells that are activated in response to an infection
Which part of the kidney is permeable to sodium and not to water?
Which part is permeable to water and not to sodium?
Descending loop = permeable to water NOT to sodium Ascending loop = permeable to sodium NOT to water
What does the diaphragm in the lungs do?
Contracts to cause inhalation
Name some things that are controlled by homeostasis
water balance, temperature regulation, blood glucose regulation, blood pH
What is the job of the lacteal in the villus (in small intestine)?
Transport of fats
Which blood vessel directly supplies oxygen to the heart muscle?
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