Topic 11 - Human Health and Physiology

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Topic 11 - Human Health and Physiology
2012-05-24 06:47:27
IB DP BIO Human Health Physiology

IB DP BIO Human Health and Physiology
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  1. What does a tendon do?
    Attaches muscle to bone
  2. What do ligaments do?
    Attaches bone to bone (restricts movement at joints and helps to prevent dislocation)
  3. What are muscles?
    Provide the force needed for muscle contraction. Enable you to move your skeleton. They can only contract or relax.
  4. What is cartilage for?
    Reduces friction between bones where they meet.
  5. What is synovial fluid?
    Lubricates the joint to reduce friction.
  6. What is the joint capsule?
    It seals the joint and holds in the synovial fluid.
  7. What is flexion?
    Bending of a joint (think of a knee)
  8. What is extension?
    Straigtening a joint (think of a knee)
  9. What kind of joint is the knee?
    A hinge joint.
  10. What kind of joint is a hip joint?
    • Allows movement in 3 planes
    • protraction/retraction
    • abduction/adduction
    • rotation
  11. What cell in our body has many nuclei (multi-nucleate?)
    Muscle fibre cells.
  12. Describe the process of blood clotting.
    Clotting factors are released from platelets and damaged cells resulting in the formation of thrombin. Thrombin catalyses the conversion of soluble fibrinogen into the fibrous protein fibrin, which captures blood cells.
  13. What is active immunity?
    The immunity due to the production of antibodies by the organism itself after the body’s defence mechanisms have been stimulated by antigens.
  14. What is passive immunity?
    • It is immunity due to the acquisition of antibodies from another organism in which active immunity has been stimulated, including
    • via theplacenta
    • colostrum (in breast milk)
    • injection of antibodies.
  15. What are the parts in the diagram?
    • 1 = oesophagus
    • 2 = pancreas
    • 3 = small intestine (duodenum and then ileum)
    • 4 = gall bladder
    • 5 = stomach
    • 6 = rectum
    • 7 = anus
    • 8 = salivary glands
    • 9 = bile duct
    • 10 = large intestine (colon)
    • 11 = appendix
    • 12 = liver
  16. What is unusual about the PULMONARY VEIN?
    Veins normally carry deoxygenated blood, but in this case, it brings oxygenated blood to the heart.
  17. Which nerve slows down heart rate?
    Vagus nerve
  18. Which nerve speeds up heart rate?
    Accelerans nerve
  19. Name the parts of the heart
    • 1 = superior vena cava (vein carrying deoxy blood)
    • 2 = right atrium
    • 3 = atrio-ventricular valve OR tricuspid valve
    • 4 = right ventricle (note: thin wall as only pumping to lungs)
    • 5 = aorta (massive artery taking blood all round body)
    • 6 = pulmonary artery (taking blood to lungs)
    • 7 = left atrium
    • 8 = atrio-ventricular valve OR bicuspid valve
    • 9 = left ventricle
    • 10 = VERY thick wall as pumping round body
  20. Which is the correct sequence of the stages of fertilization?
    cortical reaction
    penetration of the egg membrane
    acrosome reaction
    acrosome reaction -> penetration of the egg membrane -> cortical reaction
  21. Where does an egg normally get fertilized?
    In the fallopian tube
  22. What is the role of ligaments?
    Holds bone to bone together
  23. What is the role of tendons?
    • Holds muscle to bone
    • Muscles are TENDER when you work them out. Sounds a bit like TENDON.
  24. What is clonal selection?
    The mitotic division of B cells that are activated in response to an infection
  25. Which part of the kidney is permeable to sodium and not to water?
    Which part is permeable to water and not to sodium?
    Descending loop = permeable to water NOT to sodium Ascending loop = permeable to sodium NOT to water
  26. What does the diaphragm in the lungs do?
    Contracts to cause inhalation
  27. Name some things that are controlled by homeostasis
    water balance, temperature regulation, blood glucose regulation, blood pH
  28. What is the job of the lacteal in the villus (in small intestine)?
    Transport of fats
  29. Which blood vessel directly supplies oxygen to the heart muscle?
    Coronary artery