chapter 15, Cardiovascular System Part 3

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chapter 15, Cardiovascular System Part 3
2012-01-30 06:29:33
chapter 15 Cardiovascular System Part

chapter 15, Cardiovascular System Part 3
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  1. Name the blood path sequence from arteries to vena cava.
    ateries, arterioles, metarterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava
  2. What are arterioles? structure and function
    small arterial branches, made of endothelium and 1 layer of smooth muscle fiber, that deliver blood to capillaries. FYI as arterioles approach capillaries their walls become thinner
  3. What are metarterioles?
    Microscopic branches of arterioles that connect to capillaries
  4. What are the smallest blood vessels?
  5. What type of cells make up capillaries?
    simple squamos epithelium
  6. How many capillaries can arise from one arteriole?
  7. What blood vessels is an extension of the endothelium of the larger vessels?
  8. Where is the only place the exchange of gases can occur in the cardiovascular system?
  9. Where are small capillary openings found?
    Skin and all muscle types
  10. Where are the slightly larger openings of the capillary found?
    kidneys, small intestine, and those associated with the endocrine glands
  11. Where are the largest openings of the capillaries found?
    Liver, spleen, and red bone marrow
  12. Which capillary opening has sinusoids and incomplete or absent basement membranes?
    the largest
  13. What regulates capillary blood flow?
    precapillary sphincters
  14. What is exchanged between capillary blood and tissue fluid?
    Gases, nutrients, and metabloic by products
  15. What is the most important means of transport?
  16. What is diffusion?
    Molecules moving from high to low concentration
  17. What generally reamins in the blood and why?
    plasma proteins, they are to big to pass through the pores
  18. Where will diffusion occur along the capillary?
    Along the entire length
  19. What are lipid soluble substances?
    oxygen, carbom dioxide, and fatty acids
  20. What are lipid insoluble substances?
    Water, sodium, and chloride ions
  21. What type of transport involves hydrostatic pressure?
  22. Where does filtration occur ?
    at the arteriole end where the B/P is highest( B/P decreases as it moves from arteriole to venule)
  23. What transport mechanism is used for the plasma proteins?
  24. Where does osmosis take place?
    throughout the capillary, but mostly at the venule end of a capillary where reabsorption predominates
  25. What are venules?
    small veins that collect blood from capillaries and deliver it to larger veins
  26. What are veins?
    thin walled blood vessels that carry blood to the heart with low pressure
  27. Which vein is the only vein to carry oxygenated blood?
    pulmonary veins
  28. Where can lumens with a greater diameter be found?
    in venous walls
  29. What is the difference between the tunica media of arteries and veins?
    tunica media of veins is thinner and has less ealstic fibers
  30. What is the difference between the tunica externa of arteries and veins?
    tunica externa is more prominent in veins
  31. Where else besides the heart can valves be found?
  32. Define B/P.
    the force exerted by blood against the inside of blood vessels
  33. What causes arterial pressure?
    the action of the heart venrricles contracting and putting pressure on the arteries
  34. What is systolic pressures?
    highest point of BP in the arteries as the ventricles contract
  35. What is diastolic pressure?
    lower pressure on the arterial walls as the heart relaxes
  36. What are normal adult BP values?
    Systolic= 110-140 mm Hg

    Diastolic=60-90 mm Hg
  37. What is the definition of pulse?
    the rhytmic expansion and recoil of an arterial wall due to ventricular contraction
  38. What does pulse rate correspond to?
    heart rate, vibrations per min.
  39. What are normal pulse rates?
    60-100 BPM

    70-80 BPM = average
  40. Who would normally have a faster pulse?
    A baby girl.(females are faster, younger age=faster pulse)
  41. What is bradycardia?
    heartbeat below 60 BPM
  42. What is tachycardia?
    Heartbeat above 100 BPM
  43. Where are the principle sites for taking a pulse?
    • radial-thumb side inner wrist
    • brachial- antecubital little finger side
    • temporal
    • carotid
    • femoral-middle of groin
    • popliteal
    • dorsalis pedis
  44. What is peripheral resistance?
    resisteance the vessels offer to the flow of blood. BP must be greater than this force
  45. How is peripheral resistance maintained?
    By vasoconstriction(Arterioles contract) and vasodilation(arterioles dilate) controlled by the vasomotor center of the medulla
  46. What effect does vasoconstriction have on BP?
  47. What effect does vasodilation have on BP?
  48. What is stroke volume?
    the volume of blood discharged from each ventricular contraction
  49. What influences arterial BP?
    • Cardiac output
    • Blood Volume
    • Peripheral resistance
    • Viscosity
  50. BP=
    Cardiac output(CO)*PR(peripheral resistance)
  51. What does venous blood flow depend on?
    Skeletal muscle contraction, respiratory movements, venoconstriction
  52. Blood entering the hepatic portal is
    oxygen poor but nutrient rich
  53. What ions influence heart action?
    potassium and calcium
  54. What is hyperkalemia and what effect does it have on the heart?
    Alteration of the polarized state of ions and causes a decrease in the heart rate, may result in cardiac arrest