Medical Terminology Ch 14

Card Set Information

Medical Terminology Ch 14
2012-01-28 01:28:41
Lymphatic Immune Systems

Language of Medicine Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Show Answers:

  1. Production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
    acquired immunity
  2. Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
  3. Protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens.
  4. Substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most antigens are proteins or protein fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells.
  5. Lymph nodes in the armpit (underarm).
    axillary nodes
  6. Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies. The B refers to the bursa of Fabricius, an organ in birds in which B cell differentiation and growth were first noted to occur.
    B cell (B lymphocyte)
  7. Lymph nodes in the neck region.
    cervical nodes
  8. Proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target.
    complement system
  9. Proteins that aid and regulate the immune response. Examples are interferons and interleukins.
  10. T lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells (CD8+ cell or T8 cell)
    cytotoxic T cell
  11. Specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction.
    dendritic cell
  12. Lymphocyte that aids B cells and cytotoxic T cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production; also called CD4+ cell or T4 cell)
    helper T cell
  13. Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins. This includes natural immunity and acquired immunity.
  14. Antibodies (gamma globulins) such as IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigenb.
  15. Use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease.
  16. Lymph nodes in the groin region.
    inguinal nodes
  17. Proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response.
  18. Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes.
  19. Fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.
    interstitial fluid
  20. Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body. Latin lympha means clear spring water.
  21. Tiniest lympatic vessels.
    lymph capillaries
  22. Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland.
    lymphoid organs
  23. A collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels.
    lymph node
  24. Carrier of lymph throughout the body; lymphatic vessels empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest.
    lymph vessel
  25. Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the body.
  26. Lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic (chest) cavity.
    mediastinal nodes
  27. Anbtibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells. It is useful in immunotherapy.
    monoclonal antibody
  28. Protection that an individual inherits to fight infection.
    natural immunity
  29. Lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies. It originates from B lymphocytes.
    plasma cell
  30. Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body.
    right lymphatic duct
  31. Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells.
  32. What kind of immunity?

    No prior exposure to antigens
    Monocytes and macrophages
    natural immunity
  33. What kind of immunity?

    Antibodies produced after an infection
    Maternal antibodies
    T and B cells
    acquired immunity
  34. Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes. Also called a Treg (regulatory T cell).
    suppressor T cell
  35. Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; it acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens.
    T cell (T lymphocyte)
  36. The ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly. Once tolerance is established, the immune system will not react against the body.
  37. Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm; it empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest.
    thoracic duct
  38. Organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response.
    thymus gland
  39. Mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx.
  40. Poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants
  41. Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy anyt cell that possesses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection.
  42. Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease.
  43. ana-
    again, anew
  44. inter-
  45. Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
    Affected infants are born with a deficiency of B cells and T cells, resulting in a lack of immunity.
  46. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    Group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with suppression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasmas, and neurologic proglems.
  47. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    HIV destroys helper T cells (also known as CD4+ cells, containing the CD4 protein antigen). This disrupts the immune response, allowing infections to occur.
  48. Opportunistic infections
    Infectious diseases associated with AIDS.
  49. Kaposi sarcoma
    A cancer arising from the lining cells of capillaries that produce dark purplish skin nodules.
  50. Wasting syndrome
    Marked by weight loss and decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity.
  51. HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy)
    Use of combinations of protease inhibitors (neldinavir, amprenavir) and RTIs
  52. Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen.
  53. all/o
  54. Atopic
    related to atopy, a hypersensitivity or allergic state arising from an inherited predisposition
  55. Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue.
  56. Malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes, characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, fever, weakness, and loss of weight and appetitie. Diagnosis is often made by identifying a malignant cell (Reed-Sternberg cell) in the lymph nodes.
    Hodgkin disease
  57. Follicular lymphoma (composed of collections of small lymphocytes in a follicle or nodule arrangement) and large cell lymphoma (composed of large lymphocytes that infiltrate nodes and tissues diffusely).
    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. These are mostly B cell lymphomas and rarely T cell malignancies.
  58. Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells.
    multiple myeloma
  59. Malignant tumor of the thymus gland
  60. Substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body; a type of antigen.
  61. Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance.
  62. Hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition. From the Greek word atopia, which means strangeness.
  63. Helper T cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface.
    CD4+ cells. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing this protein. AIDS patients have an inadequate number of CD4+ cells.
  64. Infectious diseases associated with AIDS.
    opportunistic infections
  65. Drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps create new viral pieces for HIV.
    protease inhibitor
  66. Drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV.
    reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)
  67. Weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity; associated with AIDS
    wasting syndrome
  68. Measures the number of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) in the bloodstream of patients with AIDS.
    CD4+ cell count
  69. Screening test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream.
  70. Test that separates immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, IgD)
  71. Measurement of the amount of AIDS virus (HIV) in the bloodstream
    viral load test
  72. CD8+ cell
    cytotoxic T cell. same as T8 cell
  73. CD4+ cell
    helper T cell. same as T4 cell
  74. Regulatory T cell (suppressor T cell)
  75. Chronic, disabling disease in which the body produces antibodies against its own tissues. Examples are rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.
    autoimmune disease
  76. Protein (antibody produced by plasma cells) that acts to protect the body by destroying antigens.
  77. Suppression (stopping) of the immune response.
  78. Formation of lymph.
  79. Swelling of tissue due to accumulation of lymph fluid in intercellular spaces.
  80. Deficiency of lymphocytes in the blood.
  81. Abnormal condition of increase in lymphocytes.
  82. Derived from lymph tissue.
  83. A syndrome marked by splenomegaly (associated with anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia).
  84. An exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins.
  85. Intense allergic reaction (such as asthma) influenced
    by hereditary tendency or predisposition.
  86. Specific test to detect presence of anti-HIV
    antibodies in the bloodstream.
    Western blot