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What is a carbohydrate?
- -a carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
- -the most bundant organic compound in the plant world.
- -if we remove H2O, we get a carbon.
5 basic Functions of a carbohydrate
- -storehouse of chemical engergy (glucose, starch, glycogen)
- -components of supportive structure in plants
- -crustacean shells - chitin
- -connective tissue in animals (acidic poly saccharides)
- - essential components of nucleic acids (D-ribose and 2 deoxydribose)
a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde
Define a Ketose
a monosaccharide containg a ketone.
What is chirality and why is it important in biochemistry?
think Left and Right handedness.
What is glucose and fructose?
Glucose= Blood sugar
Fructose = Fruit sugar
*they don't metabolize the same*
What is Galactosemia and what causes it?
-1 of 18,000 infants cannot metabolize galactose
-it accumulates in blood and urine
-causes mental retardation, vision problems, liver problems...death
- goes away with maturity by developing another enzyme.
What is an amino sugar?
Contains a Nitrogen instead of an Oxygen.
How is asorbic acid produced in plants?
Produced by D-glucose
Blood Type O
- -universal donor
- -no A or B antigen
Blood Type AB
- -universal acceptor
- -has both A and B antigens
Blood Type A
- -has Antigen A (N-Acetyl-D-galatosamine)
- -alpha 1,4
- -beta 1,3
- -type A can only have type A
Blood Type B
- -has B antigen (D-Galactose)
- -alpha 1,4
- -beta 1,3
can only have type B blood
Know the monosaccharides that make up the disaccharide SUCROSE and its linkage
Fructose and Glucose
linkage alpha 1,2
broken down easily by humans
Know the monosaccharides that make up the disaccharide LACTOSE and its linkage
-Galactose and Glucose
-linkage beta 1,4
-not broken down easily by humans
-think lactose intolerant - diarrhea, cramping, gas
Know the monosaccharides that make up the disaccharide MALTOSE and its linkage
linkage alpha 1,4
easier to breakdown than lactose.
How is sweetness tested?
by personal taste
Know the monosaccharide that makes up the polysaccharide STARCH and know the linkage.
Know the monosaccharide that makes up the polysaccharide GLYCOGEN and know the linkage.
-alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6
Know the monosaccharide that makes up the polysaccharide CELLULOSE and know the linkage.
-not digestible by humans
Which polysaccharide can we digest and why?
STARCH and GLYCOGEN because of its linkages.