Chemistry Exam 3 - Carbohydrates

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Chemistry Exam 3 - Carbohydrates
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2009-11-21 14:03:40
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Chemistry Exam 3
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  1. What is a carbohydrate?
    • -a carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    • -the most bundant organic compound in the plant world.
    • -if we remove H2O, we get a carbon.
  2. 5 basic Functions of a carbohydrate
    • -storehouse of chemical engergy (glucose, starch, glycogen)
    • -components of supportive structure in plants
    • -crustacean shells - chitin
    • -connective tissue in animals (acidic poly saccharides)
    • - essential components of nucleic acids (D-ribose and 2 deoxydribose)
  3. Define aldose
    a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde
  4. Define a Ketose
    a monosaccharide containg a ketone.
  5. What is chirality and why is it important in biochemistry?
    think Left and Right handedness.
  6. What is glucose and fructose?
    Glucose= Blood sugar

    Fructose = Fruit sugar

    *they don't metabolize the same*
  7. What is Galactosemia and what causes it?
    -1 of 18,000 infants cannot metabolize galactose

    -it accumulates in blood and urine

    -causes mental retardation, vision problems, liver problems...death

    - goes away with maturity by developing another enzyme.
  8. What is an amino sugar?
    Contains a Nitrogen instead of an Oxygen.
  9. How is asorbic acid produced in plants?
    Produced by D-glucose
  10. Blood Type O
    • -universal donor
    • -no A or B antigen
  11. Blood Type AB
    • -universal acceptor
    • -has both A and B antigens
  12. Blood Type A
    • -has Antigen A (N-Acetyl-D-galatosamine)
    • -alpha 1,4
    • -beta 1,3
    • -type A can only have type A
  13. Blood Type B
    • -has B antigen (D-Galactose)
    • -alpha 1,4
    • -beta 1,3

    can only have type B blood
  14. Know the monosaccharides that make up the disaccharide SUCROSE and its linkage
    Fructose and Glucose

    linkage alpha 1,2

    broken down easily by humans
  15. Know the monosaccharides that make up the disaccharide LACTOSE and its linkage
    -Galactose and Glucose

    -linkage beta 1,4

    -not broken down easily by humans

    -think lactose intolerant - diarrhea, cramping, gas
  16. Know the monosaccharides that make up the disaccharide MALTOSE and its linkage
    2 Glucoses

    linkage alpha 1,4

    easier to breakdown than lactose.
  17. How is sweetness tested?
    by personal taste
  18. Know the monosaccharide that makes up the polysaccharide STARCH and know the linkage.
    glucose units

    alpha 1,4
  19. Know the monosaccharide that makes up the polysaccharide GLYCOGEN and know the linkage.
    -glucose units

    -alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6
  20. Know the monosaccharide that makes up the polysaccharide CELLULOSE and know the linkage.
    -glucose units

    -beta 1,4

    -not digestible by humans
  21. Which polysaccharide can we digest and why?
    STARCH and GLYCOGEN because of its linkages.

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