Chemistry 106 1st Exam

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lacythecoolest
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Chemistry 106 1st Exam
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2012-02-14 12:48:18
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Chem 106 1st test
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  1. What does VSEPR stand for and what is it used for?
    • Valence shell electron pair repulsion
    • To determine the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic replusion
  2. The chemistry numbers
    • 1. Meth
    • 2. Eth
    • 3. Prop
    • 4. But
    • 5. Pent
    • 6. Hex
    • 7. Hept
    • 8. Oct
    • 9. Non
    • 10. Dec
  3. What is the difference between an alkane and an alkene?
    Alkanes have only a single bond between carbon atoms and are said to be saturated

    Alkenes have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms and are unsaturated
  4. Chemical make up and structure of Lactic Acid
    • =O
    • C-C-C-OH
    • -OH
  5. Ester Structure
    • =O
    • C-C-O-C
  6. What isomer is most naturally occurring?
    Cis
  7. What isomer is not usually naturally occuring and bad for the body?
    Trans
  8. Whats a common triester?
    Oils
  9. Ether Structure
    R-O-R
  10. Aminr Structure
    R-NH2
  11. Amide Structure
    • =O
    • R-C-N
  12. Amino Acid Structure
    • H2N-C-C-OH
    • =O
  13. 11 Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry
    • Alkene
    • Alkyne
    • Alcohol
    • Amine
    • Aldehyde
    • Amide
    • Carboxylic Acid
    • Ester
    • Ether
    • Haloalkane
    • Ketone
  14. Four Hydrocarbon Types
    • Alkane
    • Alkene
    • Alkyne
    • Aromatic
  15. what makes vinegar?
    The air oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid
  16. What has pleasant fruit like oders?
    Esters
  17. Liquids that mix in all proportions
    Miscible
  18. Amines containing a hydrogen bonded to nitrogen can undergo condensation reactions with carbosylic acids to form:
    Amides
  19. what are the building blocks for all proteins?
    a-amino acids, substance located on the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylic acid group
  20. General formula for an a-amino acid:
    • =O
    • H2N-C-C-OH
    • -R

    OR


    • =O
    • +H3N-C-C-O(-)
    • -R
  21. What is the arrangement of amino acids along a protein chain called?
    Primary Structure
  22. What is it called when the segments of a protein chain are oriented in a regular pattern?
    Secondary Structure
  23. Two common structural motifs:
    • a helix
    • beta sheet
  24. What is the process by which the protein dopts its biologically active shaping called?
    Folding
  25. What is it called when a protein is in its folded form?
    Tertiary structure
  26. The three types of intermolecular attractions between neutral molecules:
    • dipole-dipole attractions
    • London dispersion forces
    • hydrogen bonding
  27. The attractive force between and ion and the partial charge of a polar molecule:
    ion-dipole force
  28. What is a dipole-dipole force?
    When the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another

    Usually weaker than ion-dipole forces
  29. Whats the relation between polarity and intermolecular attractions for molecules of approx equzl mass and size?
    The strengths of intermolecular attractions increase with increasing polarity
  30. The attractive force of an atom or molecule becoming instantaneously dipole and attachting to a another is called:
    London dispersion force
  31. The ease with which the electron distribution in a molecule is distorted is called:
    polarizability
  32. What does the strength of the dispersion force depend on?
    the ease with which the charge distribution in a molecule can be distorted to induce a momentary dipole
  33. Whats the relation between dispersion forces and molecular weight?
    Dispersion forces tend to increase in strength with increasing molecular weight
  34. The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond and nonbonding electron pair on a nearby small electronegative ion or atom
    Hydrogen bonding
  35. The resistance of a liquid to flow is called:
    Viscosity
  36. What is the relation between a liquids viscosity and its flow rate?
    The greater the viscosity the more slowly it flows
  37. What is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount?
    Surface tension
  38. What is the intermolecular forces that bind similar molecules to one another?
    Cohesive forces

    example: hydrogen bonding in water
  39. What is the intermolecular foces that bind a substance to a surface called?
    Adhesive forces

    example: when whater adheres to the side of a glass tube
  40. What is the rise of liquids up very narrow tubes called?
    capillary action
  41. What are the phase changes going from low energy to higher?
    • Melting
    • Sublimation
    • Vaporization
  42. What are the phase changes going from high energy to low?
    • Condensation
    • Deposition
    • Freezing
  43. What is the increased freedom of motion of the molecules or ions measured by?
    • Heat of Fusion
    • or
    • Enthalpy of Fusion
  44. What is the energy required to cause a liquid tomove into the gaseous state called?
    • Heat of Vaporization
    • or
    • Enthalpy of Vaporization
  45. What is the ernergy required to cause solid to be transformed into gas called?
    Heat of Sublimation
  46. What is it called when heat is removed from a liquid so rapidly that the molecules literally have no time to assume the ordered structure of a solid?
    Supercooling
  47. What is the highest termperature at which a distinct liquid phase can form called?
    Cirtical temperature
  48. The condition in which two opposing processes are occurring simultaneously at equal rates is called:
    Dynamic Equilibrium
  49. What happens when liquid and vapor states are in dynamic equilibrium?
    The vapor pressure of a liquid is the pressure exerted by its vapor
  50. Liquids that evaporate readily are:
    Volatile
  51. Whats a graphic way to summarize the conditions under which equilibria exist between the different states of matter?
    A phase diagram
  52. Explain why liquid water is more dense than solid water in 8 steps.
    • 1. In ice, the H2O molecules assume an ordered, open arrangement
    • 2. This arrangement optimizes the hydrogen bonding interactions between molecules
    • 3. Each Molecule forming hydrogen bonds to four other H2O molecules
    • 4. These hydrogen bonds create open cavities
    • 5. When ice melts the motions of the moelcules cause the structure to collapse
    • 6. Hydrogen bonding in the liquid is more random than in ice
    • 7. but it is strong enough to hold the molecules close together.
    • 8. So liquid water is more dense bc the given mass of water occupies a smaller volume than the same mass of ice
  53. Explain why hydrogen bonds are so strong in 5 steps
    • 1. The Hydrogen has no inner core of elections
    • 2. so the + side of the bonddipole has the concentrated charge of the partially exposed, nearly bare proton of the hydrogen nucleus
    • 3. This positive charge is attracted to the negative charge of an electronegative atom in a nearby atom
    • 4. Bc the electron poor hydrogen is so small, it can aproach an electronegative atom very closely
    • 5. THUS strong interaction
  54. What makes visocsity increase?
    Molecular weight, bc the longer the strands the more spagetti like they are
  55. What makes visocsity decrease?
    Higher temperatures that would break the spagetti bonds
  56. Explain how surface tension happens in 6 steps
    • 1. H2O molecules inside are attracted equally in all directions
    • 2. molecules on the surface only have their friends on the sides and below
    • 3. the resultant inward force pulls molecules from the surfaceinto the interior
    • 4. This reduces the surface area
    • 5. The makes the molecules at the surface pack closely together
    • 6. bc spheres have the smallest surface area for their volume, water droplets assume an almost spherical shape.
  57. How is surface tension measured?
    by the energy required to increase the surface area by overcoming the inward forces. Some unit amount by some special equation.
  58. Vapor Pressure Part 1 in 5 steps
    • 1. Any instant some molecules ona surface of a liquid possess kinetic energy to overcome the attractive forces of their neighbors
    • 2. They escape......into the gas phase
    • 3. If the attractive forces are weaker........
    • 4. The easier the escape and the more that will join
    • 5. This will highten the vapor pressure
  59. Vapor Pressure part II
    • 1. Continuously molecules are being recaptured and escape again
    • 2. The more that escape, the higher amount that is caught
    • 3. Eventually, the prision slows this down and theres a strange balance of escapees and those that are forever caught
    • 4. This is a constant pressure of the vapor that is called................
    • 5. Dynamic equilibrium
  60. Normal Boiling Point (vs. what?) 4 steps
    • 1. Liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the external pressure acting on the surface
    • 2. The temp at which it boils increases with increasing external pressure
    • 3. The boiling point of a liquid at 1 atm (760 torr) is considered "normal"
    • 4. Water boils at 100 degrees C
  61. atoms, ions, or molecules are ordered in well-defined three-dimensional arrangements.
    Cystalline solid
  62. solid in which particles have no orderly structure, lack well-defined shape.
    Amorphous solid
  63. When lattice points are at the corners the unit cell is called
    Primitive cubic
  64. When a lattice point occurs at the corners and at the center of the unit cell it is called
    Body-centered cubic
  65. When the lattice points at the center of each face and at each norner it is called
    face-centered cubic
  66. Molecular Solids
    • * atoms or molecules held together by IMF's
    • * soft
    • * melts easy
    • * most gas or liquid @ room temp
    • * not soluble
    • * not conductive
  67. Covalent-network
    • * covalently bonded with atoms
    • * very hard
    • * doesn't melt
    • * insoluble
    • * not conductive
  68. Ionic Solid
    • * positive and negative ions
    • * Hard and Brittle
    • * electrostatic attractions
    • * melts
    • * water soluble
    • * conducts electricity only in water
  69. Metallic Solids
    • * metallic bonds
    • * soft to very hard
    • * atoms
    • * low to hight melting points
    • * MALLEABLE AND DUCTILE
    • * conductive in water
  70. Alcohol
  71. Aldehyde
  72. alkene
  73. Alkyne
  74. amide
  75. amine
  76. amino acid
  77. Benzene or aromatic ring
  78. carboxylic acid
  79. ester
  80. ether
  81. Ketone
  82. Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol
    H2O + Ester
  83. Carboxylic Acid + Amine
    H2O + Amide
  84. Alcohol + Alcohol
    H2O + Ether
  85. Same molecular formula, different molecular structure
    Isomers
  86. Differ in the way the atoms are connected (there are many of these).
    Structural
  87. Same in the way the atoms are connected, but they differ due to their position in space.
    Geometric Isomers
  88. Geometric Isomers:
    Cis & Trans
  89. What breaks when food is cooked?
    a-helix structure
  90. NH4(+1)
    ammonium
  91. NO2(-1)
    Nitrite
  92. NO3(-1)
    nitrate
  93. SO3(-2)
    Sulfite
  94. SO4(-2)
    sulfate
  95. ClO(-1)
    hypochlorite
  96. ClO2(-1)
    chlorite
  97. ClO3(-1)
    chlorate
  98. ClO4(-1)
    perchlorate
  99. MnO4(-1)
    Permaganate
  100. OH(-1)
    Hydroxide
  101. H3O(+1)
    Hydronium
  102. PO4(-3)
    Phosphate
  103. CO3(-2)
    Carbonate
  104. CN(-1)
    Cyanide
  105. CrO4(-2)
    Chromate
  106. Cr2O7(-2)
    Dichromate
  107. C2H3O2(-1)
    Acetate
  108. O2(-2)
    Peroxide
  109. *occurs when temp of isolated system increases due to evolution of heat
    * Heat is released into the surrounding area
    * Negative quantity for the heat of the rxn
    Exothermic
  110. * Temp of isolated system decreases
    * surroundings gain heat
    * Overall positive hear of rxn
    Endothermic
  111. ionic bond is:
    a metal and nonmetal
  112. Base name for ionic bonds
    -ide
  113. base name for molecular bonds
    -ide
  114. base name for binary acids
    -ic
  115. base name for oxyacids -ate(4 O's):
    -ic
  116. base name for oxyacids -ite (3 O's)
    -ous
  117. Type I Ionic naming:
    • Name of cation(metal)
    • + base name of anion
    • + -ide

    • =CaI2
    • =Calcium iodide
  118. Type II Ionic naming:
    • Name of cation
    • + charge of cation(roman numerals, paranthesis)
    • +base name of anion
    • +-ide

    • =FeCl3
    • = Iron(III) Chloride
  119. Cation
    Metal
  120. Anion
    Non-metal
  121. Molecular Naming
    • Prefix
    • +name of 1st element
    • +prefix
    • +base name of 2nd element
    • +ide

    • =P2O5
    • =diphosphorus pentoxide
  122. Binary Acid Naming
    • hydro
    • +base name of nonmetal
    • +ic
    • +acid

    • =HCl
    • =Hyrdochloric Acid
  123. Oxyacid -ate naming
    • Base name of oxyanion
    • +ic
    • +acid

    • =H3PO4
    • -phosphoric acid
  124. Oxyacids -ite naming
    • base name of oxyanion
    • +ous
    • +acid

    • =H2SO3
    • =sulfurous acid
    • * Trigonal bipyramidal
    • * dsp3
    • * 5 orbitals
    • * 120 & 90 degrees
    • * linear
    • * sp
    • * 2 orbitals
    • * 160 degrees
    • * Tetrahedral
    • * sp3
    • * 4 orbitals
    • * 109.5 degrees
    • * trigonal planar
    • * sp2
    • * 3 orbitals
    • * 120 degree
    • * pentagonalbipyramidal
    • * d3sp3
    • * 7 orbitals
  125. Point between vapour, liquid and supercritical fluid on phase diagram
    Critical point
  126. Point towards bottom between solid, liquid and vapour on phase diagram
    where all forms of matter are present
    Triple point
  127. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point.
    Super critical fluid
  128. Relation between IMF's and vapor pressure
    The stronger the IMF's the lower the vapor pressure will be
  129. ATM pressure and heat relation
    The lower the atm pressure is then the lower the heat is required
  130. Why is benzene stronger?
    BC its flat-like plates, therefore making it easy to stack and form strong bonds to each other
  131. Why is H2O so strong?
    Because it has alot of donors and acceptors 2 and 2
  132. What is the same size of cystalline solid atoms?
    wave lengths, can use x-rays to gather info
  133. really high pressure
    normal temperature
    Critical point
  134. highest temperature that a gas can be condensed into a liquid
    Critical temp
  135. This is required to condense the gas @ the critical temperature
  136. Critical Pressure
  137. Super high pressures create
    • Super critical fluids/conditions
    • ~not really a fluid, just molecules packed very close together
  138. Two different solid states on the same graph
    • Rhombic
    • Monoclinic
  139. What type of allotrope structure does diamond have?
    Tetrahedral
  140. What type of allotrope structure does graphite have?
    trigonal planar

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