Chemistry 106 1st Exam
Card Set Information
Chemistry 106 1st Exam
Chem 106 1st test
Cards on lecture/discussion/lab notes
What does VSEPR stand for and what is it used for?
Valence shell electron pair repulsion
To determine the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic replusion
The chemistry numbers
What is the difference between an alkane and an alkene?
Alkanes have only a single bond between carbon atoms and are said to be saturated
Alkenes have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms and are unsaturated
Chemical make up and structure of Lactic Acid
What isomer is most naturally occurring?
What isomer is not usually naturally occuring and bad for the body?
Whats a common triester?
Amino Acid Structure
11 Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry
Four Hydrocarbon Types
what makes vinegar?
The air oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid
What has pleasant fruit like oders?
Liquids that mix in all proportions
Amines containing a hydrogen bonded to nitrogen can undergo condensation reactions with carbosylic acids to form:
what are the building blocks for all proteins?
a-amino acids, substance located on the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylic acid group
General formula for an a-amino acid:
What is the arrangement of amino acids along a protein chain called?
What is it called when the segments of a protein chain are oriented in a regular pattern?
Two common structural motifs:
What is the process by which the protein dopts its biologically active shaping called?
What is it called when a protein is in its folded form?
The three types of intermolecular attractions between neutral molecules:
London dispersion forces
The attractive force between and ion and the partial charge of a polar molecule:
What is a dipole-dipole force?
When the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another
Usually weaker than ion-dipole forces
Whats the relation between polarity and intermolecular attractions for molecules of approx equzl mass and size?
The strengths of intermolecular attractions increase with increasing polarity
The attractive force of an atom or molecule becoming instantaneously dipole and attachting to a another is called:
London dispersion force
The ease with which the electron distribution in a molecule is distorted is called:
What does the strength of the dispersion force depend on?
the ease with which the charge distribution in a molecule can be distorted to induce a momentary dipole
Whats the relation between dispersion forces and molecular weight?
Dispersion forces tend to increase in strength with increasing molecular weight
The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond and nonbonding electron pair on a nearby small electronegative ion or atom
The resistance of a liquid to flow is called:
What is the relation between a liquids viscosity and its flow rate?
The greater the viscosity the more slowly it flows
What is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount?
What is the intermolecular forces that bind similar molecules to one another?
example: hydrogen bonding in water
What is the intermolecular foces that bind a substance to a surface called?
example: when whater adheres to the side of a glass tube
What is the rise of liquids up very narrow tubes called?
What are the phase changes going from low energy to higher?
What are the phase changes going from high energy to low?
What is the increased freedom of motion of the molecules or ions measured by?
Heat of Fusion
Enthalpy of Fusion
What is the energy required to cause a liquid tomove into the gaseous state called?
Heat of Vaporization
Enthalpy of Vaporization
What is the ernergy required to cause solid to be transformed into gas called?
Heat of Sublimation
What is it called when heat is removed from a liquid so rapidly that the molecules literally have no time to assume the ordered structure of a solid?
What is the highest termperature at which a distinct liquid phase can form called?
The condition in which two opposing processes are occurring simultaneously at equal rates is called:
What happens when liquid and vapor states are in dynamic equilibrium?
The vapor pressure of a liquid is the pressure exerted by its vapor
Liquids that evaporate readily are:
Whats a graphic way to summarize the conditions under which equilibria exist between the different states of matter?
A phase diagram
Explain why liquid water is more dense than solid water in 8 steps.
1. In ice, the H2O molecules assume an ordered, open arrangement
2. This arrangement optimizes the hydrogen bonding interactions between molecules
3. Each Molecule forming hydrogen bonds to four other H2O molecules
4. These hydrogen bonds create open cavities
5. When ice melts the motions of the moelcules cause the structure to collapse
6. Hydrogen bonding in the liquid is more random than in ice
7. but it is strong enough to hold the molecules close together.
8. So liquid water is more dense bc the given mass of water occupies a smaller volume than the same mass of ice
Explain why hydrogen bonds are so strong in 5 steps
1. The Hydrogen has no inner core of elections
2. so the + side of the bonddipole has the concentrated charge of the partially exposed, nearly bare proton of the hydrogen nucleus
3. This positive charge is attracted to the negative charge of an electronegative atom in a nearby atom
4. Bc the electron poor hydrogen is so small, it can aproach an electronegative atom very closely
5. THUS strong interaction
What makes visocsity increase?
Molecular weight, bc the longer the strands the more spagetti like they are
What makes visocsity decrease?
Higher temperatures that would break the spagetti bonds
Explain how surface tension happens in 6 steps
1. H2O molecules inside are attracted equally in all directions
2. molecules on the surface only have their friends on the sides and below
3. the resultant inward force pulls molecules from the surfaceinto the interior
4. This reduces the surface area
5. The makes the molecules at the surface pack closely together
6. bc spheres have the smallest surface area for their volume, water droplets assume an almost spherical shape.
How is surface tension measured?
by the energy required to increase the surface area by overcoming the inward forces. Some unit amount by some special equation.
Vapor Pressure Part 1 in 5 steps
1. Any instant some molecules ona surface of a liquid possess kinetic energy to overcome the attractive forces of their neighbors
2. They escape......into the gas phase
3. If the attractive forces are weaker........
4. The easier the escape and the more that will join
5. This will highten the vapor pressure
Vapor Pressure part II
1. Continuously molecules are being recaptured and escape again
2. The more that escape, the higher amount that is caught
3. Eventually, the prision slows this down and theres a strange balance of escapees and those that are forever caught
4. This is a constant pressure of the vapor that is called................
5. Dynamic equilibrium
Normal Boiling Point (vs. what?) 4 steps
1. Liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the external pressure acting on the surface
2. The temp at which it boils increases with increasing external pressure
3. The boiling point of a liquid at 1 atm (760 torr) is considered "normal"
4. Water boils at 100 degrees C
atoms, ions, or molecules are ordered in well-defined three-dimensional arrangements.
solid in which particles have no orderly structure, lack well-defined shape.
When lattice points are at the corners the unit cell is called
When a lattice point occurs at the corners and at the center of the unit cell it is called
When the lattice points at the center of each face and at each norner it is called
* atoms or molecules held together by IMF's
* melts easy
* most gas or liquid @ room temp
* not soluble
* not conductive
* covalently bonded with atoms
* very hard
* doesn't melt
* not conductive
* positive and negative ions
* Hard and Brittle
* electrostatic attractions
* water soluble
* conducts electricity only in water
* metallic bonds
* soft to very hard
* low to hight melting points
* MALLEABLE AND DUCTILE
* conductive in water
Benzene or aromatic ring
Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol
H2O + Ester
Carboxylic Acid + Amine
H2O + Amide
Alcohol + Alcohol
H2O + Ether
Same molecular formula, different molecular structure
Differ in the way the atoms are connected (there are many of these).
Same in the way the atoms are connected, but they differ due to their position in space.
Cis & Trans
What breaks when food is cooked?
*occurs when temp of isolated system increases due to evolution of heat
* Heat is released into the surrounding area
* Negative quantity for the heat of the rxn
* Temp of isolated system decreases
* surroundings gain heat
* Overall positive hear of rxn
ionic bond is:
a metal and nonmetal
Base name for ionic bonds
base name for molecular bonds
base name for binary acids
base name for oxyacids -ate(4 O's):
base name for oxyacids -ite (3 O's)
Type I Ionic naming:
Name of cation(metal)
+ base name of anion
Type II Ionic naming:
Name of cation
+ charge of cation(roman numerals, paranthesis)
+base name of anion
= Iron(III) Chloride
+name of 1st element
+base name of 2nd element
Binary Acid Naming
+base name of nonmetal
Oxyacid -ate naming
Base name of oxyanion
Oxyacids -ite naming
base name of oxyanion
* Trigonal bipyramidal
* 5 orbitals
* 120 & 90 degrees
* 2 orbitals
* 160 degrees
* 4 orbitals
* 109.5 degrees
* trigonal planar
* 3 orbitals
* 120 degree
* 7 orbitals
Point between vapour, liquid and supercritical fluid on phase diagram
Point towards bottom between solid, liquid and vapour on phase diagram
where all forms of matter are present
A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point.
Super critical fluid
Relation between IMF's and vapor pressure
The stronger the IMF's the lower the vapor pressure will be
ATM pressure and heat relation
The lower the atm pressure is then the lower the heat is required
Why is benzene stronger?
BC its flat-like plates, therefore making it easy to stack and form strong bonds to each other
Why is H2O so strong?
Because it has alot of donors and acceptors 2 and 2
What is the same size of cystalline solid atoms?
wave lengths, can use x-rays to gather info
really high pressure
highest temperature that a gas can be condensed into a liquid
This is required to condense the gas @ the critical temperature
Super high pressures create
Super critical fluids/conditions
~not really a fluid, just molecules packed very close together
Two different solid states on the same graph
What type of allotrope structure does diamond have?
What type of allotrope structure does graphite have?