Leukocytes

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kris10leejmu
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131044
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Leukocytes
Updated:
2012-01-27 22:03:28
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Lab Tech
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Lab Tech
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  1. What are granulocytes?
    Named by staining of nucleus...neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils
  2. What are mononuclear WBC's?
    Lymphocytes and Monocytes
  3. List three general methods of obtaining a leukocyte count from most accurate to least.
    • Manual from Unopette
    • Automated (from particle counter, expanded buffy coat, laser flow cytometry)
    • Estimation techniques
  4. What are the functions of neutrophils?
    • First line of defense in tissue
    • Phagocytosis
    • Anti-microbicidal action (kills bugs)
  5. How many nuclear segments does a normal segmented neutrophil contain?
    3 - 5 divisions
  6. Describe the chromatin pattern of the segmented neutrophil
    clumpy
  7. What is a band?
    Immature neutrophil - not yet segmented
  8. Describe what a band looks like.
    • Sides are parallel
    • U or S shaped
    • Smooth nuclear membrane
  9. Is there such a thing as a band eosinophil
    no
  10. Define left shift.
    • Neutrophils released from bone marrow early, in response to inflammation
    • Once bone marrow gears up, it can release enough segs but early in the process when there aren't enough segs, the bands are sent out.
  11. Define regenerative left shift.
    • There are more segs than bands
    • Leukocytosis
    • We know the bone marrow is working because there are more segs
  12. Define degenerative left shift.
    • Bone marrow is not able to keep up with the demand
    • Bands are = or > segs
    • Leukopenia because the body just doesn't have any more
  13. What is degenerate neutrophil and what causes it?
    • "Toxic changes" in Neutrophils
    • Reaction of segs to inflammation, infection, toxemia
    • Happens within the cytoplasm
  14. What is another name for toxic seg?
    Degenerative neutrophil
  15. Describe what changes occur as toxic changes occur in neutrophils.
    • Basophilic cytoplasm
    • Cytoplasmic vacuoles/foaminess
    • Dark blue granules: Dohle bodies
  16. What is hypersegmentation and what is it due to?
    • More than 5 lobes
    • Causes: an old seg, artifact from not making blood smear within 30 minutes
  17. Where are neutrophils produced?
    bone marrow
  18. What is Pelgar-Huet anomaly?
    All mature neutrophils look like bands
  19. List three abnormal blue blobs found within neutrophils
    • Viral Inclusion Bodies
    • Ehrlichia Canis (intracellular parasite)
    • Histoplasm (fungal) Organisms
  20. Where are eosinophils produced?
    bone marrow
  21. How long do eosinophils circulate?
    30 minutes
  22. What is eosinophilia?
    Increased number of eosinophils in blood
  23. What does the presence of eosinophilia indicate?
    • Parasites (internal and external)
    • Allergic reactions (hypersensitivities)
    • Eosinophlic leukemia, some tumors (MCT - mast cell tumor)
  24. What is eosinopenia?
    Decreased number of eosinophils in the blood
  25. What causes eosinopenia?
    Glucocorticoids (cortisols) - Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushings), Iatrogenic, Stress (increase in natural cortisol)
  26. Are basophils commonly found on blood smears?
    no
  27. When they are found, they often accompany what other WBC?
    eosinophils
  28. What do mast cells look like? Where are they normally found?
    • Many dark purple granules, may obstruct the view of the nucleus
    • Found in tissue
  29. List the cells of granulopoeisis (in order of production)
    • Myeloblast
    • Promyelocyte
    • Myelocyte
    • Metamyelocyte
    • Band
    • Mature granulocyte
  30. List the cells of monocytopoeisis (in order of production).
    • Monoblast
    • Promonocyte
    • Monocyte
  31. List the cells of lymphopoeisis (in order of production)
    • Lymphoblast
    • Prolymphocyte
    • Lymphocyte
  32. How long does it take to go from myeloblast to segmented granulocyte?
    10 - 11 days
  33. Name six tissues that contain a lot of lymphoid tissue.
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen
    • Tonsils
    • Thymus
    • Mucosal surfaces
    • Bone Marrow
  34. What is a plasma cell?
    Activated B-lymphocytes (make lots of antibodies)
  35. Where do we find plasma cells?
    • Lymph nodes
    • Bone marrow
    • Spleen
    • Occasionally seen in blood
  36. What does a plasma cell look like?
    Eccentric nucleus with perinuclear clear zone
  37. Lise five causes of lymphocytosis.
    • Post-vaccination
    • Chronic infections
    • During infection recovery
    • Lymphocytic leukemia
    • Part of physiologic leukocytosis in cats (ventipuncture, restraint) - when they get excited or stressed their lymphocytes will go up
  38. List five causes of Lymphopenia
    • Many viral diseases (example - parvo)
    • Stress
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Immunosuppressive drugs (chemotherapy)
    • Ionizing radiation
  39. Where are monocytes produced?
    Bone marrow
  40. Where do macrophages come from?
    Monocytes in blood transforms to macrophages in tissues
  41. What are the appropriate terms for increases and decreases in the different WBC cell types?
    • Leukocytosis/Leukopenia
    • Neutrophilia/Neutropenia
    • Eosinophilia/Eosinopenia
    • Lymphocytosis/Lymphopenia
    • Monocytosis/Monocytopenia
  42. What is the primary site of lymphocyte production?
    In bone marrow
  43. What causes stress leukogram?
    Due to endogenous (came from the body) or exogenous (given to the body)
  44. Describe how excitement can affect the leukogram.
    It flushes the marginated neutrophils from the capillary walls and will show an increase in segs
  45. How does excitement produce neutrophilia?
    Excitement increases segs in circulating pool by "flushing" them from the walls of capillaries into the circulating blood
  46. List the causes for monocytosis.
    • Chronic infections
    • Fungal infections
    • Monocytic leukemia
    • Situations with an increase in cortisol (stress, hyperadrenocorticism)
  47. Cell-mediated immunity is performed by _____ and humoral immunity is performed by _____.
    • T cells
    • B cells
  48. How do you calculate absolute counts from relative WBC percentages?
    % from each type of cell X WBC count = absolute count (cells/ul)

    The % is the relative count
  49. What is the function of segs?
    First line of defense in tissue
  50. What is the function of bands?
    Help with inflammation
  51. What is the function of lymphocytes?
    • T-Lymphocytes: Destruction of foreign invaders (viruses, bacteria, etc)
    • B-Lymphocytes: Produces antibodies (helps flag invaders for the rest of the immune system to destroy)
  52. What is the function of monocytes?
    Eats old RBC
  53. What is the function of macrophages?
    Phagocytes in tissue
  54. What is the function of eosinophils?
    • Attaches to and kills worms
    • Attached by chemical mediators released by mast cells udring allergic reactions
  55. What is the function of basophils?
    Mediator of inflammation
  56. Which WBC is the largest?
    Monocytes
  57. What typically causes leukocytosis?
    Neutrophilia
  58. What are the three different types of neutrophilia?
    • Physiologic neutrophilia
    • Inflammatory leukogram
    • Stress leukogram
  59. What are the causes of neutrophilia?
    • Excitement
    • Inflammation
    • Stress
    • Neoplasia
  60. Describe what a monocyte looks like.
    • Vesicular (lacey) chromatin
    • Cytoplasm gray-blue
    • Vacuoles in cytoplasm
  61. Where, besides the blood, do monocytes live?
    • In tissue as macrophages
    • In reticuloendothelial system as macrophages (Kupffer cells)
  62. In cats, what other cell is commonly seen in the peripheral blood as part of physiologic leukocytosis? And why?
    lymphocytosis due to epinephrine release during a stressful situation (ex/ventipuncture)
  63. Is a stress leukogram caused by epinephrine release due to a difficult venipuncture?
    yes
  64. What are the differences between an inflammatory leukocytosis and a physicologic leukocytosis?
    Inflammatory Leukocytosis: Due to neutrophilia, neutrophilia with or without a left shift

    Physicologic Leukocytosis: Due to epinephrine release which causes tachycardia which makes the blood pump faster and clushes the neutrophils from the capillary walls
  65. What are causes of leukopenia?
    • Viral infection
    • Overwhelming bacterial infection
    • Gram negative endotoxemia
    • Poor nutritional state (starvation)
    • Physical agents (radiation)
    • Chemical agents (chemotherapy)
  66. What are the causes of neutropenia?
    • Overwhelming inflammation
    • Decreased production (bone marrow not making enough)
    • Ineffective production (not working right)
  67. What are the causes of marrow insufficiency?
    • Depression
    • Depletion
    • Destruction
    • Degeneration
    • Lack of hormonal input
  68. What is marrow depression?
    Marrow temporarily loses ability to make segs in response to peripheral demand (see a decreas in segs, but no bands)
  69. What is marrow depletion?
    • High peripheral demand (no more left)
    • Degenerative left shift results
    • Improves in time if animal lives
  70. What is marrow destruction?
    • Blood-forming cells destroyed
    • Decrease in all cell types (red and white)
    • Due to chemical/physical agents (estrogen, chloramphenicol, radiation) - bone marrow doesn't come back
  71. What causes a lack of hormonal input? What are the different hormones and where are they releases)
    • Chemical messenger that give marrow the message aren't producing the hormone
    • Erythropoietin (renal)
    • Leukopoietin (released by dying WBC)
    • Thrombopoietin (on platelet surface)
  72. Where do we do WBC estimations?
    Buffy coat or on a smear (with lots of practice)
  73. What the normal WBC reference ranges for dogs/cats and horses/ruminants?
    • Dog & Cats: 5,000 to 20,000 cells/ul
    • Horses & Ruminant: 5,000 to 12,000 cells/ul
  74. When do you do a corrected WBC count?
    If you see any NRBCs on a smear, you must do a corrected WBC count
  75. What is a NRBC?
    Nucleated RBC
  76. What is the formula for a corrected WBC count?
    (100/100 + NRBCs) X WBC count
  77. What do you look for when doing a WBC differential?
    • Size and shape of nucleus
    • Chromatin pattern
    • Nuclear:Cytoplasmic ratio
    • Color of cytoplasm
    • Any cytoplasmic granules
    • Any cytoplasmic vacuoles
  78. Which is the most numerous granulocyte?
    Neutrophils
  79. Where do granulocytes function?
    Function in the tissues and are only transported in blood
  80. Whats the technical name for a neutrophil?
    Polymorphoneutrophil
  81. How big are neutrophils?
    12 - 15 microns in diameter
  82. What does the cytoplasm of a neutrophil look like?
    Pale (light pink/slightly purple with neutral granules)
  83. What is a Dohle Body?
    • Blue dot in cytoplasm - 1 per cell
    • Means there is inflammation
  84. What do eosinophils look like?
    Look similar to neutrophils but granules are pink/orange/red
  85. What are the reasons for an increase in eosinophils?
    • Parasitic infections (internal or external)
    • Allergic reactions
  86. What do basophils look like?
    Granules are basophilic
  87. What can basophils be easily confused with?
    • Darkly stained eosinophils
    • Mast cells
  88. Where do we find mast cells?
    Should not be in blood - should only be in tissue
  89. Why are immature granulocytes occastionally found in blood?
    Due to large tissue demand (bone marrow can't keep up so sends them out early - bands) or due to granulocytic leukemia
  90. Describe lymphocytes
    • Smaller than neutrophils
    • Larger than RBCs
    • Stain blue/purple
    • High nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio
    • Small and large lymphs are common
  91. What is the most common WBC in ruminants and rodents?
    Lymphocytes
  92. What is the most common WBC in dogs and cats?
    Dogs and Cats
  93. How long do lymphocytes live?
    3 days to years
  94. What does the nucleus of monocytes look like?
    oval or kidney bean shape
  95. What do macrophages look like?
    • Large cell in tissue
    • Abundant pale blue cytoplasm
    • Vacuoles
    • Pale vesicular nucleus
  96. How many more neutrophils are stored in bone marrow as they are in peripheral blood?
    30 times more
  97. How many neutrophils are marginated (stored) along capillary walls and do not normally circulate?
    Half
  98. What will we see in a stree leukogram?
    • Neutrophilia without a left shift
    • +/- monocytosis
    • Eosinopenia
    • Lymphopenia


  99. What kind of cell is this?
    Band Neutrophil (no segments)


  100. What kind of cell is this?
    Basophil (basophilic granules)


  101. Describe the chromatin pattern of this neutrophil.
    Clumpy & Hypersegmented


  102. What is in the cytoplasm?
    granules


  103. What are the clear spots in the cytoplasm?
    Vacuoles


  104. Describe the chromatin pattern of this neutrophil.
    Diffused


  105. What is the blue spot on this neutrophil?
    Dohle Body (one blue granule in segment cytoplasm)


  106. What is the spot on this neutrophil?
    Ehrlichia Canis (intracellular parasite)


  107. What kind of leukocyte is this?
    Eosinophil (eosinophilic granules)


  108. What kind of leukocyte is this?
    Eosinophil (eosinophilic granules)


  109. What are these spots in the cytoplasm of these neutrophils?
    Histoplasma Organisms (fungal)


  110. Identify these cells.
    • A: Segment
    • B: Platelet
    • C: Lymphocyte
    • D: Eosinophil

  111. Identify these cells.
    • A: Lymphocyte
    • B: Segment
    • C: Eosinophil


  112. What kind of leukocyte is this?
    Lymphocyte (stain blue/purple, high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio)


  113. What kind of cell is this?
    Mast Cell (many dark purple granules, may obstruct view of nucleus)


  114. What kind of cytoplasmic basophilia does this basophil have?
    mild to moderate


  115. What kind of cytoplasmic basophilia does this basophil have?
    moderate to severe


  116. What kind of leukocyte is this?
    Monocyte (vesicular (lacey) chromatin, cytoplasm gray-blue, vacuoles in cytoplasm)


  117. What kind of leukocyte is this?
    Neutrophil (segment)


  118. What is wrong with these neutrophils?
    Pelger-Huet Anomaly


  119. What kind of cell is this?
    Plasma cell (eccentric nucleus with perinuclear clear zone)


  120. Describe this neutrophil.
    S shaped band


  121. What is in the cytoplasm of this neutrophil?
    Viral inclusion body

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