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  1. carbohydrates
    • monomer---(dehydration synthesis)---->polymer
    • (monosacharide)-simple sugar
  2. 3 major complex carbohydrates
    • 1.) starch- derived from plants(short to medium use of energy)
    • 2.)glycogen-in liver(short burst)
    • 3.) cellulose- plant walls- hard to break down
  3. Lipids
    • fats, oil
    • monomer--------(dehydration synthesis)-->polymer(fattyacid)
    • (fatty acid)
  4. phospholipid
    our plasma cell membrane
  5. hydrophobic
    fear of water
  6. hydrophilic
    love of water
  7. Proteins
    monomer(amino acid)--------dehydration synthesis---->polymer(peptide bond)
  8. primary structure
    order of amino acids
  9. secondary structure
    weak hydrogen bonds, b pleated sheets or alpha helix
  10. tertiary structure
    3-D shape, what makes for all of activity(blob/folding)
  11. quadary structure
    3d shape that folds and connects like a lock-key
  12. Nucleaic Acids
    • DNA, RNA, ATP
    • mononmer(nucleotide)----dehydration synthesis-->polymer(nucleic acid)
  13. Nucleotide
    • 1.) sugar
    • 2.) N-containing bases
    • 3.) phosphate group
  14. ATP
    tri-phosphate-->energy carrier in cell(like elecricity)

    sugar-->fat-->stored as ATP(currency)
  15. DNA and RNA
    • -covalent bond between sugar and phosphate
    • -contain lots of nucleotides
    • -RNA-has back bone of sugar phosphate
  16. Protists
    single cell organisms
  17. All cells have
    • -plasma membrane-selectively permeable
    • -cytoplasm
    • -storage for DNA
  18. phospholipid bilayer
    will have 2 laters that natually curves into spheres
  19. Plasma membrane
    • -selectively permeable(determines what is allowed in and out)
    • -->structure of phospholipid bilayer
  20. Functions of plasma membrane
    • 1.) transport proteins
    • 2.) enymes(speed up chemical reactions)
    • 3.) adhesion proteins (help cells stick together)
    • 4.) recognition proteins (carbohydrates)(defense will attack cells that are non-self[antibodies]
    • 5.) receptor protein--bond to some chemical-->sends signals(to change behavior)
  21. Surface area to volume ratio
    as cells get larger, surface area increases. As it gets larger teh ratio becomes more equivelent
  22. Cell Theory
    • 1.) All living organisms consist of cells
    • 2.) A cell is teh smallest unit of life
    • 3.) Every living cell came from division of pre-exsisting cells
    • 4.) Cells contain DNA that they pass to pthers
  23. Bacteria
    are teh samlles and simpliest cells
  24. Prokaryotic
    • -no nucleus or mebrane bound organeles
    • -cell wal-not made of cellulose, but peptidoglycan
    • -cytoplasm-->metabolism=sum of all chemical reactions in the cell
    • ---ribosomes-->make proteins
    • ---DNA-->in nucleid region

    • flagellum-->used for movement
    • pilus-->anchoring bacterium(to another substance)
  25. metabolism
    sum of all chemical reactions in the cells
  26. Domain Bacteria
    • -Cyanobacteria-->can to photosynthesis
    • -bacteria that make you sick and help you
    • -biolfims--> community of microrganisms living in a sharded mass of slime(chemicals)(protections)>>>toxin, waste product, stick(veggies)
  27. Domain Archea
    -live in extreme enviroment...extremophiles
  28. Eukaryotic cells
    domain Eukara
    • -membrane(phospholipid bilayers)..bound organelles
    • -nucleus=bounded by nuclear membrane
    • --->DNA - linear(long straight line) chromatic
    • ---->nucleolus-makes ribosomes
  29. Eukaryotic cells
    Endomembrane system
    • maze of system, membrane bound organells
    • -->endoplasmic reteculem(ER)
    • rough(RER) ribosomes(rough bumps)
    • smooth SER
  30. Eukaryotic cells
    • -golgi body/apparatus-->packaging proteins for export(shipping department)
    • -vacuole/vessicle-->storage, digestion(food,pigment, enzymes)
  31. Diffusion
    movement of molecules form high to low concentration until equally distributed(across a plama membrane)
  32. consentration gradient
    difference in concentration(on two side of membrane)
  33. Rate of Diffusion depends on
    • 1.) concentration gradient(larger c.g. rate is higher)
    • 2.) size(smaller molecules moves faster
    • 3.) tempature(higher temp the rate increases)
    • 4.) charge
    • 5.) pressure(increase pressure increase rate)
  34. osmosis
    water moves from an area of high H20 concentration to low water concentraton until it is equally distributed(usually across a semi permeable membrane)
  35. turgor
    pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall or membrane
  36. tonicity
    how to describe concentration of solutes
  37. isotonic
    solution has same concentration on both sides of membrane
  38. hypotonic
    lower concentration of solute (to the one in comparison)(higher concentration of water)
  39. hypertonic
    solution has higher solute concentration(lower H20 concentration)
Card Set:
2012-01-28 03:34:23

First Exam 1,3,4
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