HS&F C2

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Author:
mrskitarn
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131123
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HS&F C2
Updated:
2012-01-29 08:07:45
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C2 you are what eat
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C2 Cell ultrastructure and tissues
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  1. Define what an organelle is
    a specialized part of a cell that has a specific function
  2. list 2 functions of mitochondria
    • 1) Site of ATP synthesis
    • 2) Powerhouse of the cell
  3. name this organelle
    Mitochondria
  4. name the function of ribosomes
    the site of protein synthesis
  5. name this organelle:

    Ribosomes
  6. Name 2 functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum
    1) packaging of proteins that will be transported to the golgi apparatus via vesicles

    2) external face synthesises phospholipids
  7. Name this organelle:

    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  8. name 3 functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • 1) site of lipid and steroid synthesis
    • 2) site of lipid metabolism
    • 3) site of detoxification
  9. Name this organelle:

    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  10. list the function of the golgi apparatus
    packages, modifies, and segregrates proteins for secretion from the cell
  11. name this organelle:

    Golgi Apparatus
  12. name the function of lysosomes
    contains the acid Hydrolasis nad acts as the digestive system of the cell
  13. Name this organelle:

    Lysosome
  14. name the function of microtubules
    support the cell and give it shape
  15. name this organelle:

    Microtubles
  16. name 2 functions of microfilaments
    • 1) involved in muscle contraction
    • 2) help for the cell's cytoskeleton
  17. Name this organelle:

    Microfilament
  18. name 2 functions of centrioles
    1) organize a microtuble network during mistosis to form the spindles and asters

    2) form the base of the cilia and flagella
  19. Name this organelle:

    Centrioles
  20. Nigel can cook mouthwatering fries like chef cristof can
    • nucleus
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • mitochondria
    • flagella
    • lysosomes
    • cilia
    • chloroplast
    • centriole
  21. explain the fluid mosiac model
    • composed of a double layer of lipid molecules with protein molecules dispersed within it.
    • polar head (hydophilic)
    • non polar tail (hydrophobic)
  22. what is this:

    the phospholipid bilayer
  23. Name this tissue:

    Epithelial tissue
  24. list 4 types of epitelial tissue
    • 1) Simple squamous
    • 2) simple cuboidal
    • 3) stratified sqamous
    • 4) simple columnar
  25. name two functions of epithelial tissue
    • 1) Barrier
    • 2) secretion and absorbtion
  26. Name 7 features of epithelial tissue
    • 1) high cellular turnover
    • 2) basal lamina anchors cells
    • 3)apical surface (forms an apex)
    • 4) avascular (no blood supply)
    • 5) involved in the formation of endocrine/exocrine glands
    • 6) highly cellular/little or no intercellular material
    • 7) developed from all three germ layers
  27. name 3 places that epithelial tissue is found
    • 1) outer layer of the skin
    • 2) lining of internal tubules
    • 3) hollow organs/glands
  28. give 4 examples of where connective tissue is found
    • 1)bone
    • 2) fat
    • 3) catiliage
    • 4) immune tissues
  29. give 3 examples of muscular tissue
    • 1) skeletal
    • 2) smooth
    • 3) cardiac
  30. give 3 examples of where nervous tissue can be found
    • 1) brain
    • 2)spinal chord
    • 3) peripheral nerves
  31. where can transitonal epithelial tissue be found
    the lining of the urinary bladder
  32. Name 5 functions of connective tissue
    • 1) supports/binds/compartments
    • 2) protects and insulates
    • 3) stores energy (adipose)
    • 4)transport (blood)
    • 5) immune response
  33. name 3 features of connective tissue
    • 1) few cells
    • 2) no apical surface
    • 3) highly vascular (except cartilage and tendons)
  34. name 3 common characteristics of connective tissue
    • 1) common origin (arise from mesenchyme)
    • 2) degrees of vascularity
    • 3) extracellular matrix
  35. explain the extracellular matrix
    all other primary tissues are made up of cells. connective tissues are largely non-living, extra-cellular matrix.
  36. what % of body weight is the integumentary system
    7%
  37. Name in order the 3 layers of the integumentary system
    • 1) epidermis
    • 2) dermis
    • 3) hypodermis
  38. name 2 functions of the integumentary system
    • 1) regulates body temp
    • 2) provides colouration to the skin
  39. name 5 functions of digestion
    • 1) take in food
    • 2) break down food
    • 3) absorb digested materials
    • 4) provide nutrients
    • 5) eliminate wastes
  40. name the 4 layers of the digestive system
    • 1) mucosa
    • 2) submucosa
    • 3)muscularis
    • 4) servosa/adventitia
  41. name 2 features of the mucosa
    • 1) innermost layer
    • 2) secretes mucous
  42. name 2 features of the submucosa
    • 1) above mucosa
    • 2) contains blood vessels, nerves, small glands
  43. name 2 features of the muscularis
    • 1) above submucosa
    • 2) longitudinal, circular and oblique muscles
  44. name 1 feature of the servosa/adventitia
    outermost layer
  45. what is this?

    the peritoneum
  46. what is the peritoneum made up of
    layers of smooth epithelial tissue
  47. name the three areas of the peritoneum
    • 1) mesentries
    • 2)lesser omentum
    • 3) greater omentum
  48. point to the mesentry on this pic

    the yellow area
  49. what number is the lesser omentum on this pic

    16
  50. what num is the mesentry on this pic?
    17
  51. what num is the greater omentum on this pic?

    9
  52. describe the mesentries
    connective tissue of organs in the abdominal cavity
  53. describe the lesser omentum
    mesentry connecting the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver and diaphragm
  54. describe the greater omentum
    mesentry connecting greater curvature of the stomach to transverse colon and posterior body wall
  55. name 3 functions of the salivary glands
    • 1) produce saliva: enzymes to break carbs down into glucose
    • 2)cleanse mouth
    • 3) dissolve and moisten food`
  56. wwhat is amaylase
    enzyme that breaks down carbs
  57. what is lysozyme
    anti-bacterial
  58. locate and identify these glands

    • salivary glands from top to bottom:
    • 1) parotid
    • 2) sublingual
    • 3) submandibular
  59. describe the pharynx
    connects mouth to esophagus
  60. describe the esophagus
    connects pharynx to stomach
  61. Name this and identify the sub regions:

    • Pharynx (from top to bottom)
    • 1) nasal cavity
    • 2) nasopharynx
    • 3) oropharynx
    • 4) laryngopharynx
  62. name these structures:

    from left to right; esophagus, trachea
  63. list the 4 stages of swallowing
    • 1) voluntary phase (bolus pushed into oropharynx)
    • 2) pharyngeal phase (swallowing reflex initiated when bolus stimulates touch receptors in the oropharynx

    • 3) esophageal phase (moves food from pharynx to stomach)
    • 4) Peristalsis (wave like contractions moves food through the digestive tract)
  64. how much food can the stomach hold
    2L
  65. name 3 substances that the stomach produces
    • 1) Mucous
    • 2) hydrochloric acid
    • 3) protien digestive enzymes
  66. describe the lining of the stomach
    contains a thick mucous layer that lubricates and protects epithelial cells on the stomach wall from acid
  67. what is the PH level of the stomach
    PH 2-3
  68. name the 3 muscular layers of the stomach
    • 1) longitudinal
    • 2) middle circular
    • 3) oblique muscle layer
  69. name these muscle layers

    • from top to bottom:
    • 1) longitudinal
    • 2) middle circular
    • 3) oblique muscle layer
  70. what is rugae?
    large folds in the stomach that allow it to stretch
  71. describe chyme
    paste like substance that forms in the stomach when food begins to be broken down
  72. describe mixing waves in the stomach
    weak contraction, thoroughly mixing food to form chyme
  73. describe 4 features of peristaltic waves
    • 1) stronger contraction
    • 2) forces chyme towards and through the pyloric sphincter
    • 3) hormonal and neural mechanisms stimulate stomach secretions
  74. how often does the stomach empty?
    stomach empties every 4hrs after regular meal and every 6-8hrs after fatty meal
  75. name this action

    peristalsis
  76. how long is the small intestine
    6m
  77. what is the function of the small intestine
    major absorbtion organ
  78. how long does chyme take to pass through the small intestine
    3-5hrs
  79. name 2 features of the small intestine
    • 1) contains enzymes to break down food
    • 2) secretions for protection against chyme's acidity
  80. name this region and it's sudivisions:

    • the small intestine (from top to bottom):
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  81. how much bile per day does the liver secrete?
    700ml
  82. name 3 functions of the liver
    • 1) digestive and excretory functions
    • 2) stores and processes nutrients
    • 3) detoxifies harmful chemicals
  83. what is the function of the gallbladder?
    stores and concetrates bile
  84. Explain the numbers in this pic:

    1) the hepatic ducts from the liver lobes combine to form the common hepatic duct

    2) the common hepatic duct combines with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct

    3) the common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct

    4) the combined duct empties into the duodenum and duodenal papilla

    5) pancreatic secretions may also enter the duodenum through an accessory pancreatic duct, which also empties into the duodenum
  85. where is the pancreas located?
    posterior to the stomach - inferior part of the upper left quadrant
  86. locate the pancreas on this pic:

  87. name the function of endocrine tissues
    have pancreatic islets that produce insulin and glycogen
  88. what do pancreatic islets produce
    insulin and glyocogen
  89. name the function of exocrine tissue
    produce digestive enzymes
  90. what chemical elements make up proteins
    nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  91. name the 6 functions of proteins
    • 1) produce body components
    • 2)maintain fluid balance
    • 3)contribute to acid base balance
    • 4)form enzymes & hormones
    • 5)contribute to immune function
    • 6) provide energy and satiety
  92. give 2 examples of how proteins produce body components
    • 1) muscle fibers and connective tissue
    • 2) hemoglobin and antibodies
  93. give an example of how protiens maintain fluid balance
    proteins in the blood attract fluid back to the blood from extracellular spaces
  94. give 2 examples of how proteins contribute to the acid base balance
    • 1) in cell membranes proteins pump ions in and out of cell
    • 2) in the blood buffers take up and release oxygen
  95. give 2 examples of how proteins form enzymes and hormones
    • 1) catalyzes chemical reactions (eg lactase and lipase)
    • 2) internal body messengers (eg insulin and thyroid hormone)
  96. give 1 example of how proteins contribute to immune function
    bind to foreign proteins eg antibodies
  97. give 2 examples of how proteins provide energy and satiety
    • 1) form glucose from amino acids
    • 2) during exercise and calorie restriction (amino group removed and carbon skeleton metabolised for energy)
  98. name this strucutre:

    Protein (amino acid)
  99. what is the H:O ratio in CHO's
    2:1
  100. name 3 monosacharides
    • 1) Gluscose
    • 2) fructose
    • 3) galactose
  101. describe glucose
    blood sugar
  102. describe fructose
    fruit sugar converted to glucose in liver
  103. describe galactose
    in milk sugar (lactose)
  104. name this structure:

    Glucose (CHO)
  105. Name this structure:

    Fructose (CHO)
  106. Name this Structure:

    Galactose (CHO)
  107. what is sucrose composed of?
    glucose and fructose
  108. what is lactose made of?
    glucose and galactose
  109. what is matose made of?
    gucose and glucose
  110. name this structure:

    sucrose (CHO)
  111. name this structure:
    Lactose (CHO)
  112. define polysacharides
    3000 or more monosacharides
  113. explain amaylase
    and polysacharide - straight chain poymer
  114. explain amylopectin
    polysacharide - highly branched polymer
  115. explain glycogen
    looks like a spiderweb polysacharide
  116. name this structure
    amylase (polysacharide)
  117. name this structure:
    Amylopectin (polysacharide)
  118. Name this structure:
    Glyocgen (polysacharide)
  119. name 1 feature of lipids
    do not readily dissolve in water
  120. name four types of lipids
    • 1) tryglycerides
    • 2) phospholipids
    • 3) sterols (cholesterol)
    • 4) fats and oils
  121. Name this strucure:
    tryglyceride (lipid)
  122. are saturated fats solid or liquid
    solid
  123. are unsaturated fats solid or liquid
    liquid
  124. name 6 functions of fatty acids
    • 1) provides energy
    • 2) efficient strorage
    • 3) insulation
    • 4) protection
    • 5) transport of fat soluble vitamins
    • 6) flavour and mouth feel
  125. name 2 functions of omega 6 acids
    • 1) increases blood clotting
    • 2) increases inflamatory response
  126. name 3 functions of omega 3 acids
    • 1) decrease blood clotting
    • 2) reduce heart attack
    • 3) decrease inflammation
  127. describe the structure of tryglycerides
    3 fatty acids attatched to 1 glycerol
  128. name 2 features of phospholipids
    • 1) built on glycerol backbone
    • 2) contains phosphorus compounds
  129. name this structure:
    phospholipid
  130. name 4 features of sterols
    • 1) multi ringed structure
    • 2) no glycerol backbone
    • 3) do not readily dissolve in water
    • 4) found in animal fats
  131. what is the function of sterols
    used to make hormones, vitamin D and bile
  132. name this structure:

    sterol
  133. name 5 features of high density lipoprotein
    • 1) synthezied by the liver and intestine
    • 2) high proportion of protein
    • 3) picks up cholesterol from dying cells
    • 4) transfers cholesterol to other lipoproteins
    • 5) transfers cholersterol directly back to the liver

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