Name the organ systems of the body, and briefly state the major functions of each system.
- Integumentary System - The external covering of the
- body or the skin. It waterproofs the body and prevents injury to deeper tissues. It excretes salt and urea and helps regulate body temperature.
Skeletal System - Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints. It supports the body and provides the framework that skeletal muscles use to perform movement. It is also used as a protective covering for the skull, and a storehouse for minerals. Hematopoiesis occurs within the cavities of the skeleton.
Muscular System - Only one function - to contract or shorten to produce movement. Skeletal muscles that are attached to the bones to produce movement. They maintain posture and produce heat.
Nervous System - Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory receptors. Sensory receptors detect changes and send messages via nerve impulses to the central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord. The CNS then assesses the information and reacts by activating muscles or glands.
Endocrine System - . The endocrine system controls body activities through endocrine glands that produce and release hormones into the blood to target organs. These endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries and testes.
Cardiovascular System - The heart and blood vessels. The heart pumps the blood through the blood vessels that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other substances to and from tissue cells.
Lymphatic System - Its organs include lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs such as the spleen and tonsils. The lymph nodes and lymph organs help cleanse the blood and store immunity cells.
Respiratory System - Keeps the body supplied with oxygen and removes carondioxide. It consists of the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
- Digestive System - Includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and rectum, plus the liver, salivary glands, and pancreas. The purpose of these organs is to break down food and deliver nutrients to the
Urinary System - Produces wastes of nitrogen (urea and uric acid) that results from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acid. This excretory system is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It also maintains the body's water and salt balance.
Reproductive System - Primarily to produce offspring. In the male - testes, scrotum, penis, accessory glands, and duct system. In the female - ovaries, the female duct system (uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina).