Epi E1

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HLW
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131146
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Epi E1
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2012-01-28 11:07:10
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Epi E1
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  1. What is the term for an individual that harbors an infectious agent or is exposed to potential agents of disease?
    Host
  2. What is the term for personal characteristics of an individual or group like age, sex, breed?
    demographics
  3. What is the term for individuals with a particular disease or outcome that meet selected criteria?
    Case
  4. What is the term for a factor that directly influences the occurrence of disease or outcome?
    causal factors or determinant; syn with risk factor or exposure factor
  5. What is the term for encountering a potentially pathogenic agent with a susceptible human/animal host which shows immunologic response?
    infection
  6. What is defined as clinically apparent infection accompanied by overt illness?
    disease
  7. What is occurrence and distribution of disease in populations with emphasis on establishing causal factors and develop preventive/therapeutic protocols?
    epidemiology
  8. What type of epidemiology focuses on identifying and reporting distribution and frequency of health events in a population?
    descriptive epidemiology
  9. What type of epidemiology focuses on the search for determinants of health outcomes and draws statistical inferences about their role in disease causation?
    analytical epidemiology
  10. What is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of an individual patient?
    evidence based medicine
  11. What is the term for constant/usual frequency of disease within a population or one that occurs regularly?
    endemic/enzootic
  12. Can a disease that is endemic become epidemic?
    yes
  13. What is synonymous with "outbreak" and refers to occurrence of disease in excess of expected levels?
    epidemic/epizootic
  14. Can an epidemic disease lead to endemic disease?
    yes
  15. What is a widespread epidemic that involves more than one country?
    pandemic
  16. What are WHO conditions that define pandemic?
    • -disease new to pop/hasn't surfaced in long time
    • -agent causes severe illness
    • -agent spreads easily with high morbidity/mortality
    • -agent spread to at least 2 countries
  17. What is the term for irregular, haphazard occurrence of disease?
    sporadic
  18. Is sporadic disease one that is new to the population?
    no, just occurs infrequently and is not rapidly spread
  19. What is the term for ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action?
    surveillance
  20. What are the 3 factors in the epidemiologic triangle?
    host, agent, environment
  21. What 3 factors interplay to influence level of disease?
    individual, spatial, and temporal factors
  22. What is meant by individual factors?
    what type of individuals tend to develop disease
  23. What is meant by spatial factors?
    where the disease is geographically
  24. What is meant by temporal factors?
    When is the disease occurring
  25. What are 4 ways to report the occurrence of disease?
    • in time (temporal)
    • by time series analysis
    • by host related distribution of dz
    • by space (spacial/geographical) location
  26. When considering temporal dimensions of disease, what do we specifically want to determine that gives clues as to mode of transmission and what action to take?
    endemic, epidemic, pandemic, sporadic
  27. What is plotted on the "Y" and "X" axis of epidemic curves?
    • Y: new cases
    • X: time
  28. What are the 3 basic epidemic curves?
    • point source epidemic
    • continuous common source epidemic
    • propagating epidemic
  29. What type of curve shows a large number of cases exposed during short time of 1 incubation period?
    point source epidemic
  30. What type of curve rises rapidly and contains a definite peak, followed by decline once source is removed?
    point source epidemic
  31. What type of curve shows prolonged exposure over extended period and may have more than 1 incubation period?
    in a continuous common source epidemic
  32. What type of curve has a sharp downward curve if source is removed or gradual if outbreak exhausts itself (no peak)?
    continuous common source epidemic
  33. What type of curve shows disease introduced through single source (primary case) of infection then transmitted to others (secondary cases)?
    propagating epidemic
  34. What type of curve shows a series of successively larger peaks, reflective of increasing number of cases until 2ndary cases are exhausted or controlled?
    propagating epidemic
  35. What is the term for a set of uniformly applied criteria for a particular disease?
    case definition
  36. What is the term for a measure of the frequency with which new cases occur over a specified time?
    incidence
  37. What is the term for a number of cases that are present in a population?
    prevalence
  38. What are 3 types of Time Series Analysis?
    • short term (typical epidemics)
    • cyclical/seasonal
    • secular/long term
  39. What uses information on patterns of disease occurrence obtained from temporal occurrence data to identify periods of high or low risk trends to explore causal relationships?
    time series analysis
  40. What type of trend rises and falls over more than 1 year? It is associated with regular, periodic fluctuations in occurrence.
    cyclical trend
  41. What is a special case of cyclical trends where periodic fluctuations relate to seasons?
    seasonal trend
  42. What causes fluctuations in cyclical trends?
    host density, management practices, vector dynamics, environmental factors
  43. What type of trend rises/declines gradually over long period using plotted raw data?
    secular trend
  44. How do you calculate cumulative incidence?
    1/1000 = (# new cases during a period / # at risk for developing dz during that period) x 1000
  45. How do you calculate prevalence?
    P= # with disease at point in time / # at risk at that time
  46. What is the the calculation to look at the relationship between prevalence and incidence?
    P = I x duration of disease
  47. What are the 3 steps in spatial distribution?
    • data visualization (mapping)
    • data description (cluster analysis)
    • data modeling
  48. What type of mapping is used to provide info on locality and shows how dz moves through a country?
    aerial maps
  49. What type of map requires computer software to enter each case based on its location?
    spot map
  50. What type of map requires computer software to shade areas to show which areas are affected more often?
    frequency map
  51. What is the measure of disease in time and space to identify geographical clustering of disease and define endemic, epidemic, etc. based on time:location to decide is the occurrence is enough for concern?
    data description/cluster analysis
  52. What type of modeling is used to test hypothesis and plan health policies?
    data modeling
  53. What are 3 causal factors that should be taken into account?
    agent factors, environmental influences, host factors
  54. What are 3 aspects of agent factors, which impact disease occurrence?
    • infection (establish in a host)
    • pathogenic (produce disease in host)
    • virulence (severity of disease caused by agent)
  55. What are some host factors that affect host response to exposure?
    • innate resistance due to age, breed, sex, etc.
    • competent immune system (poor when stressed)
  56. What is herd immunity?
    resistance in population
  57. What are 3 types of associations?
    non-statistical (chance), statistical, risk factors
  58. Should a non-statistical relationship be considered a causal association?
    no, it is only by chance that the two factors seem related
  59. A positive statistical association may indicate a ___ relationship, while a negative association may indicate a ____ factor.
    • causal relationship
    • protective factor
  60. What is the term for a causal or something that increases likelihood of disease?
    risk factor
  61. What are some risk factors?
    genetic predisposition; behavioral; environmental
  62. What type of relationship shows a connection between amount of cause and amount of effect?
    dose-response relationship
  63. What is biological plausibility?
    research on mechanisms of disease provides the biological basis that associations are causal
  64. What is "consistency" with regard to causal relationships?
    evidence for a causal relationship are strengthened where various studies all come to same conclusion
  65. What is a reversible association regarding causal relationships?
    if removal of a factor results in decreased/increased frequency of disease, it is more likely causal
  66. What is the strongest study design? The weakest?
    • strongest = randomized clinical trial
    • weakest = case series/report
  67. What are 2 things that measure strength of association?
    relative risk (used in cohort studies) and odds ratio (in case-control studies)
  68. What are some things that impair making causal inferences?
    • long time between cause and disease
    • multiple "causes" lead to same disease/outcome
    • causal factor requires other factors for disease
  69. What is a factor that directly influences occurrence of disease/outcome?
    causal factor
  70. What is the term for any of the possible changes in health status that result from exposure?
    outcome
  71. What is the term for the result of a cause and includes disease or outcome?
    effect
  72. What is the term for contact with a cause of a particular disease/outcome?
    exposure
  73. What is any systematic error that results in incorrect estimate of association between exposure and risk of disease?
    bias
  74. What are the 2 main types of bias?
    selection and informational
  75. What are types of selection bias?
    surveillance, non-responsive, inappropriate comparison group
  76. How do you avoid selection bias?
    randomly select subjects, ensure response rates are high, and ensure withdrawal rates are low
  77. What are some types of information bias?
    interviewer, recall, using incomplete data, misclassification, observer biases
  78. What is the term for random error?
    chance
  79. What is the term for distortion/masking association between an exposure and disease because of a 3rd factor?
    confounding
  80. Are case reports, cross sectional and correlational studies descriptive or analytical?
    Descriptive
  81. Are cohort, case-control and randomized trial studies descriptive or analytical?
    analytical
  82. What are the earliest studies done on new disease that do not have much statistical analysis involved?
    descriptive studies
  83. What descriptive study describes a single case or group of cases that leads to formulation of new hypothesis bc its often the 1st report of new disease?
    case reports
  84. What descriptive studies show the case can happen repeatedly?
    case series
  85. What is the main weakness of care reports/case series?
    no control groups
  86. What are prevalence studies that give a snapshot of health at a point in time?
    cross-sectional studies
  87. What is the main weakness of cross sectional studies?
    cannot assess cause and effect bc it's one point in time
  88. What type of descriptive study evaluates exposures and disease on a group level rather than individual to look for geographical correlations?
    ecological/correlational studies
  89. What is committed if an assumption is made that the association found at the herd/group level is also true at individual level?
    ecological fallacy
  90. Can ecological studies determine cause or control for confounding factors?
    no
  91. What studies seek to identify and explain causes of disease and assign numerical value to risk factors?
    analytical studies
  92. What type of studies are cohort and case-control studies?
    analytical observational studies
  93. What type of studies are therapeutic and prevention trials?
    analytical non-observational
  94. In cohort studies, start with identifying "?" cohort and "?" cohort and then measure "?" in each to compare.
    • exposes, non-exposed
    • measure disease occurrence
  95. What is a group of persons sharing common experience within defines time period?
    cohort
  96. What type of study compares disease incidence over time between 2 groups that differ in exposure to factor of interest?
    cohort study
  97. What type of study selects exposed and non-exposed groups and follow them forward to measure amount of disease from present to future?
    prospective cohort studies

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