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the tiniest of all viruses
Microorganisms include = (4)
What do microorganisms do?
- make nitrogen availbel for living plants
- decompose dead organism, industrial waste, waste from living organimsm
Microorganism synthesize _______.
Give 3 reasons microorganisms are useful in research:
- simple unicellulare structure
- large #'s can be used to obtain statiscally reliable results
- reproduce quickly (espicially for genetic research)
The ability tos ee two items as seperate discrete units is called what?
- single celled
- spherical, rod, or spiral shaped. some form filaments
- NO cell necleus
- NO membrane enclosed intracellulare structures
- absord nutrients from thier enviornment or synthesize thier own
Who developed the 5 kingdowm system?
Who developed the new tree of life?
Give the domains of the tree of life:
- Archaea - primitive bacteria
- Bacteria - modern bacteria
- Eukarya - include 5 kingdoms
Who founded he science of taxonomy?
Linnaeus found what system?
taxonomy and the use of the binomial nomeclature (two name system) Genus & Species
Bacteria are ______ , and _______ are bacteria.
List the order of taxonomy names:
- (Doppy King Phillip Came Over For Good Sex)
The new tree of life contains 3 _____ and 5 ______.
List the charecterisics of Prokaryotes :
- NO nucleus / membrane enclosed sructures
- single celled organisms
- all are bacteria
What is Carl Woese known for?
Domain being erected before the Kingdom
What is a Mastigophorans?
- Protisit that has a flagela.
- Most live in symbiotic relationships with plants/animals
What is a Trypanosoma?
Animal like protisit that has a flagella and causes African Sleeping Sickness
What specis of Trypanosoma cause trypanosomiasis?
T. brucei gambiense / rhodesiense
What is the common nam fore the condition of African Sleeping Sickness?
What does Leishmania cause?
Leishmaniasis or skin leisons / systemic disease with fever
Who first discovered G. lamblia?
What does Giardia cause?
Giardiasis = infects the small intestine / diarreha
What is Tricomonas?
It is a protozoa that can cause tricomonas
What is bacterium that causes Trichomoniasis?
Who invented the microscope?
Anon van Leeuwenhoek
Who gave an awarness of animacules?
What is the study of Algea called?
What kingdoms are included in the study of Phycology?
- K. Protista
- K. Monera
- K. Planta
What is the study bacteria called & what kingdom doe sit include?
Bacteriology / K. Monera
What kingdoms are included in the study of Virology?
What is the study of parasitic worms called?
What is Redi known for?
Refuting spontaneus generation by conducting a balanced experiment that Described the fly life cycle
Who gets credit for early canning techniques?
- with heat sealed flasks
What did Needham do?
Re-proved spontaneous generation following Redi
What three things led to Microbiology as a science ?
- the discovery of microscopes
- theory of spontaneous generation
- concern over disease transmission
What did the study of Streptococcus pyogenes help discover/ who discovered it?
Semmelweis connected the dots about childbirth fecer and clean hands = he introduced hand washing
What did Lister give us?
- Rubber gloves
- hand washing, clean surgical instrumnets / environment
What does the germ theory of disease state?
the germs cause disease
What do och's postulates show?
the direct correclation between one germ / one disease (cause / effect)
Who laid the foundation of the Germ Theory of Disease?
What is brewers yeast?
Who first described anaerobic metabolism?
Pastuer / wine making
What is the scientific name for Chicken Colera?
What is scanning power ?
it is the power you start in when observing slides on a microscope = 4 X 10 = 40X
What is the power of the occular lens on a modern compound microscope?
Who re-proved spontaneous generation? and how?
- heated the broth and then covered it = a few days latter the animalcules can back.
- (made sure it had air/ life force)
Who was the first to describe spontaneous generation?
What experiment finally dis-proved spontaneous generation and who did it?
- by using 2 tubes with a solualble filter, sucks air throught them, then dissolves them in water to see what is there
Who conducted the swan neck flask experiments and why?
Pasteur to dis-prove spontaneous generation
What is the host called who carries the adult reproductive stage of a parasite?
What makes an intermediate host?
a host who harbours larval stage of aparasite
What is Balantidium coli?
It is the only ciliated protozoan that cause human disease.
Humans get it from pig feces. (pigs are the resevior)
What causes balantidiasis?
Kingdom = Animalia
Phylum = Platyhelmininthes
Class = _________
What parasites belong to the Class Trematoda?
- Ex: Shistosoma japonicum
- Fasicola hepatica
What is a scolex?
head of a tapeworm
What are the reproductive segments of a tapeworm called?
What causes Malaria ?
Passed by mosquitoes, the Protista ... Plasmosium vivax
Who invented the small pox vaccine and from what?
Jennar from cow pox
Who discovered phagocytes?
What discovered salvarsan? and what was it?
- arsnic based drug for treating syphilis =
- Ehrlich's "magic bullet"
What is Penicillium notatum and how does it work?
early antibiotic that targets peptidoglycan in bacteria's cell walls.
Fleming discovered it
Who gave us antibiotics / from what?
Fleming from mold
Who is the father of cell biology?
- by looking at cork = Cells
Who improved the microscope by giving us oil immersion?
What is refraction?
the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another of different density.
What does oil immersion do ?
Who first used oil immersion?
What converges light beams so they pass through the specimen on a microscope?
What controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen on a microscope?
The Iris Diaphragm
What objective lens is refered to as high "dry"?
(40x) x (100x) = 400x magnification
What type of light would you use to observe live microorganisms?
This type of microscopy uses visible light with a special condenser that causes light to reflect off the specimen at an angle:
used for unstained living irganisms, allows to see motion
What appearance does dark-field microscopy give you?
Bright specimen on a dark background
What would you use a negative stain to see and why?
a Negative stain to see apart of a specimen (ex: capsule). This part of the specimen won't absorb the dye, making it easier to see against the dyed background
Who is the father of taxonomy?
What Kingdom would you place prokaryotes in?
What Kingdom would you place unicellualr eukaryotes in?
What kingdom does cyanobacteria belong to?
Name the 5 Kingdoms
Arthropods belong to what Kingdom ?
- Insects = ticks, fleas mosquitoes, testes fly, louse (lice)
What causes Swimmer's itch?
What causes Dracunculiasis / common name?
Guinea Worm or Drancunclus medinensis
What Kingdom / Phylum / class does Wuchereria bancrofti belong
what is it?
- Kingdom Animalia / Phylum Rounds worms / CLass nematodes
- elaphantiasis causing Roundworm
What Kingdom Candida albicans be found?
What is another name for athlete' foot or jock itch ?
Tinea pedis / Tinea cruris
Trichophyton (multi cellular Kingdom Fungi)
What kingdom do Dinoflagellates belong in and what are they?
flagellated red algae
What causes red tide here in Florida?