Micro Test # 1

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Micro Test # 1
2012-02-11 09:03:23

Bodenweiser test 1
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  1. Microbes =
    the tiniest of all viruses
  2. Microorganisms include = (4)
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • protozoa
    • algea
  3. What do microorganisms do?
    • make nitrogen availbel for living plants
    • decompose dead organism, industrial waste, waste from living organimsm
  4. Microorganism synthesize _______.
  5. Give 3 reasons microorganisms are useful in research:
    • simple unicellulare structure
    • large #'s can be used to obtain statiscally reliable results
    • reproduce quickly (espicially for genetic research)
  6. The ability tos ee two items as seperate discrete units is called what?
  7. Describe bacteria:
    • single celled
    • spherical, rod, or spiral shaped. some form filaments
    • NO cell necleus
    • NO membrane enclosed intracellulare structures
    • absord nutrients from thier enviornment or synthesize thier own
  8. Who developed the 5 kingdowm system?
  9. Who developed the new tree of life?
  10. Give the domains of the tree of life:
    • Archaea - primitive bacteria
    • Bacteria - modern bacteria
    • Eukarya - include 5 kingdoms
  11. Who founded he science of taxonomy?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  12. Linnaeus found what system?
    taxonomy and the use of the binomial nomeclature (two name system) Genus & Species
  13. Bacteria are ______ , and _______ are bacteria.
  14. List the order of taxonomy names:
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
    • (Doppy King Phillip Came Over For Good Sex)
  15. The new tree of life contains 3 _____ and 5 ______.
    • 3 Domains
    • 5 Kingdoms
  16. List the charecterisics of Prokaryotes :
    • NO nucleus / membrane enclosed sructures
    • single celled organisms
    • all are bacteria
  17. What is Carl Woese known for?
    Domain being erected before the Kingdom
  18. What is a Mastigophorans?
    • Protisit that has a flagela.
    • Most live in symbiotic relationships with plants/animals
  19. What is a Trypanosoma?
    Animal like protisit that has a flagella and causes African Sleeping Sickness
  20. What specis of Trypanosoma cause trypanosomiasis?
    T. brucei gambiense / rhodesiense
  21. What is the common nam fore the condition of African Sleeping Sickness?
  22. What does Leishmania cause?
    Leishmaniasis or skin leisons / systemic disease with fever
  23. Who first discovered G. lamblia?
  24. What does Giardia cause?
    Giardiasis = infects the small intestine / diarreha
  25. What is Tricomonas?
    It is a protozoa that can cause tricomonas
  26. What is bacterium that causes Trichomoniasis?
    T. vaginallis
  27. Who invented the microscope?
    Anon van Leeuwenhoek
  28. Who gave an awarness of animacules?
    von Leeuwenhoek
  29. What is the study of Algea called?
  30. What kingdoms are included in the study of Phycology?
    • K. Protista
    • K. Monera
    • K. Planta
  31. What is the study bacteria called & what kingdom doe sit include?
    Bacteriology / K. Monera
  32. What kingdoms are included in the study of Virology?
  33. What is the study of parasitic worms called?
  34. What is Redi known for?
    Refuting spontaneus generation by conducting a balanced experiment that Described the fly life cycle
  35. Who gets credit for early canning techniques?
    • Spallazani
    • with heat sealed flasks
  36. What did Needham do?
    Re-proved spontaneous generation following Redi
  37. What three things led to Microbiology as a science ?
    • the discovery of microscopes
    • theory of spontaneous generation
    • concern over disease transmission
  38. What did the study of Streptococcus pyogenes help discover/ who discovered it?
    Semmelweis connected the dots about childbirth fecer and clean hands = he introduced hand washing
  39. What did Lister give us?
    • Rubber gloves
    • hand washing, clean surgical instrumnets / environment
  40. What does the germ theory of disease state?
    the germs cause disease
  41. What do och's postulates show?
    the direct correclation between one germ / one disease (cause / effect)
  42. Who laid the foundation of the Germ Theory of Disease?
    • Koch
    • Koch's postulates
  43. What is brewers yeast?
    Saccharomyeces cerevisiae
  44. Who first described anaerobic metabolism?
    Pastuer / wine making
  45. What is the scientific name for Chicken Colera?
    Pasteurell multacida
  46. What is scanning power ?
    it is the power you start in when observing slides on a microscope = 4 X 10 = 40X
  47. What is the power of the occular lens on a modern compound microscope?
  48. Who re-proved spontaneous generation? and how?
    • Needham
    • heated the broth and then covered it = a few days latter the animalcules can back.
    • (made sure it had air/ life force)
  49. Who was the first to describe spontaneous generation?
  50. What experiment finally dis-proved spontaneous generation and who did it?
    • Pasteur
    • by using 2 tubes with a solualble filter, sucks air throught them, then dissolves them in water to see what is there
  51. Who conducted the swan neck flask experiments and why?
    Pasteur to dis-prove spontaneous generation
  52. What is the host called who carries the adult reproductive stage of a parasite?
    Definitive Host
  53. What makes an intermediate host?
    a host who harbours larval stage of aparasite
  54. What is Balantidium coli?
    It is the only ciliated protozoan that cause human disease.

    Humans get it from pig feces. (pigs are the resevior)
  55. What causes balantidiasis?
    Balantidium coli
  56. Kingdom = Animalia
    Phylum = Platyhelmininthes
    Class = _________
  57. What parasites belong to the Class Trematoda?
    • Flukes
    • Ex: Shistosoma japonicum
    • Fasicola hepatica
  58. What is a scolex?
    head of a tapeworm
  59. What are the reproductive segments of a tapeworm called?
  60. What causes Malaria ?
    Passed by mosquitoes, the Protista ... Plasmosium vivax
  61. Who invented the small pox vaccine and from what?
    Jennar from cow pox
  62. Who discovered phagocytes?
  63. What discovered salvarsan? and what was it?
    • arsnic based drug for treating syphilis =
    • Ehrlich's "magic bullet"
  64. What is Penicillium notatum and how does it work?
    early antibiotic that targets peptidoglycan in bacteria's cell walls.

    Fleming discovered it
  65. Who gave us antibiotics / from what?
    Fleming from mold
  66. Who is the father of cell biology?
    • Hooke
    • by looking at cork = Cells
  67. Who improved the microscope by giving us oil immersion?
  68. What is refraction?
    the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another of different density.
  69. What does oil immersion do ?
    Reduces refraction.
  70. Who first used oil immersion?
    Robert Hooke
  71. What converges light beams so they pass through the specimen on a microscope?
  72. What controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen on a microscope?
    The Iris Diaphragm
  73. What objective lens is refered to as high "dry"?
    (40x) x (100x) = 400x magnification
  74. What type of light would you use to observe live microorganisms?
    Phase Contrast
  75. This type of microscopy uses visible light with a special condenser that causes light to reflect off the specimen at an angle:

    used for unstained living irganisms, allows to see motion
  76. What appearance does dark-field microscopy give you?
    Bright specimen on a dark background
  77. What would you use a negative stain to see and why?
    a Negative stain to see apart of a specimen (ex: capsule). This part of the specimen won't absorb the dye, making it easier to see against the dyed background
  78. Who is the father of taxonomy?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  79. What Kingdom would you place prokaryotes in?
  80. What Kingdom would you place unicellualr eukaryotes in?
    Kingdom Protista
  81. What kingdom does cyanobacteria belong to?
  82. Name the 5 Kingdoms
    • Monera
    • Fungi
    • Protista
    • Planta
    • Animalia
  83. Arthropods belong to what Kingdom ?
    • Animalia
    • Insects = ticks, fleas mosquitoes, testes fly, louse (lice)
  84. What causes Swimmer's itch?
    Shistosoma japonicum
  85. What causes Dracunculiasis / common name?
    Guinea Worm or Drancunclus medinensis
  86. What Kingdom / Phylum / class does Wuchereria bancrofti belong

    what is it?
    • Kingdom Animalia / Phylum Rounds worms / CLass nematodes
    • elaphantiasis causing Roundworm
  87. What Kingdom Candida albicans be found?
    Kingdom Fungi
  88. What is another name for athlete' foot or jock itch ?
    Tinea pedis / Tinea cruris

    Trichophyton (multi cellular Kingdom Fungi)
  89. What kingdom do Dinoflagellates belong in and what are they?
    Kingdom Protista
  90. flagellated red algae
  91. What causes red tide here in Florida?
    • Karenia brevis