The flashcards below were created by user mct on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Abomasum
    Fourth of four chambers of the ruminant stomache; 'true' stomache; equivalent to the stomache of monogastrics
  2. Adenohypophysis
    Anterior pituitary: releases LH and FSH
  3. Ad Libitum
    Feeding regime which provides as much feed as the animals consume; there is no restriction of feed intake
  4. Adrencorticotropic Hormone
    Released from anterior hypophysis; stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
  5. Alektorophobia
    Fear of chickens
  6. All-in All-out
    Management practice in which all animals are moved in and moved out of a certain facility at the same time in order to allow for complete cleaning in between cycles, and therefore reduce the chance of a disease being spread between groups or generations
  7. Ampullae/Ampullary Glands
    Male reproductive accessory gland; enlargement of the vas deferens
  8. Anestrus
    Period in the female reproductive cycle of no sexual activity
  9. Anthropomorphism
    Assigning of human attributes, such as emotions to animals
  10. Antiseptic
    Chemical used with the intent of reducing bacterial properties
  11. Anus
    Exiting point of undigested feed materials, in the form of feces, from the digestive tract of an animal
  12. Artificial Insemmination
    Creation of a pregnancy without direct contact between the dam and sire; semen collected from the sire is deposited into the uterus of the dam with the use of semen straws
  13. Atresia
    Degeneration of a follicle during development
  14. Avian
    Pertaining to birds (in agriculture, particularly the domesticated species of poultry)
  15. Aviary
    Facility in which birds are housed
  16. Barrow
    Castrated male pig
  17. Biosecurity
    Plan to the entry or spreed of a disease in a flock/herd or between flocks/herds
  18. Bloat
    Inability for gas produced in the rumen to be diffused, resulting in an accumulation
  19. Boar
    Intact male pig
  20. Bolus
    1.) Feed regurgitated to be re-chewed in ruminants (ie. cud)

    2.) Orally administered capsule
  21. Bovine
    Pertaining to cattle
  22. Breech
    Birth in which the offspring is not in position to exit the birth canal properly
  23. Breed
    Group of organiss within a species with common ancestors, common and distinguishable features; distinguishable characteristics often arise from selective breeding
  24. Broiler
    Domestic fowl that is raised for it's increased yield of muscle; chickens usually marketed at approximately 2kg liveweight
  25. Brother
    Male chick from the female line; not used in breeding; arised from errors in sexing
  26. Buck
    Male goat or deer
  27. Bulbourethral Glands/Cowpers Glands
    Male reproductive accessory glands; secrete fluid that is added to the sperm before ejaculation
  28. Bull
    Intact male bovine; male elk
  29. Bull-calf
    Immature intact male bovine
  30. Burdizzo
    Instrument used for bloodless castrating
  31. Calf
    Young bovine and some cervids (less than one year of age)
  32. Capon
    Castrated male chicken
  33. Carcass
    Body of a slaughtered animal which has had viscera and offal removed
  34. Castration
    Removal of teh reporoductive organs; rendering an organism unable to reproduce
  35. Caudal
    Anatomical descriptor; meaning towards the tail or rear of an organism
  36. Cecum
    First section of the large intestine; blind sac; contains anaerobic bacteria beneficial in the fermentation of feedstuffs, especially in such hind-gut fermentors as horses and rabbits; equivalent to the appendix in humans
  37. Cervix
    Tight seal between the uterus and vagina
  38. Claw
    1.) Chick toenail

    2.) Part of a milking machine which attaches directly to the teat of the cow in order to obtain milk
  39. Cleiodoic
    Embryo development in a closed environment (eg. an egg)
  40. Cloaca
    Area immediately preceding the vent in avian species; access to the reproductive, urinary and digestive systems
  41. Cockerel
    Male chicken prior to sexual maturity
  42. Colostrum
    Initial secretion of the mammary glands immediately following parturition; high in fat, nutrients, and immunoglobulins for the benefit of the offspring
  43. Colt
    Young male horse
  44. Colon
    Major portion of the large intestine; contains anaerobic bateria for degradation of feedstuffs
  45. Comb
    Flesh running from the top of the beak towards the back of the skull in chickens
  46. Condition
    Level of fatness on a carcass
  47. Conformation
    Structure of the body of an animal
  48. Congenital
    A defect acquired before birth/hatching
  49. Contagious (communicalbe/Transmissible)
    Spread amongst organisims by direct or indirect contact
  50. Corpus Luteum
    Yellow body formed at the site of ovulation on an ovary; important in hormone regulation of pregnancy and reproduction
  51. Cortical Bone
    Hard outer layer of bone
  52. Cow
    Mature female bovine
  53. Cranial
    Anatomical descriptor; indicates towards the head or front of an organism
  54. Crop
    Site of feed storage in the avian digestive system; a sac attached to the esophagus, anterior to the proventriculus and gizzard
  55. Crossbreeding
    Production of offspring by parents that are not related and are of different breeds
  56. Cryptorchid
    1.) Failure of one or both of the testicles to drop into the scrotum, cause partial or full sterility

    2.) A male animal castrated by pushing the testicles back up into the body cavity and maintaining this position using an elastrator; this effectively sterilizes the male (arrests sperm production), while production of male hormones is continued
  57. Cull
    Removing a low-producing, injured, sick or otherwise inferior animal from the group; also, a term for that animal
  58. Dam
    Maternal parental unti
  59. Disease
    Abnormal change within the body
  60. Distal
    Anatomical descriptor; indicates the location of something relatively distant
  61. DNA
    Molecule encoding the genetic make-up of an organism. Comprised of repeating nucleotides, whichare units of a nitrogen base (one of: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
  62. Dock
    Remove a section of the tail
  63. Dorsal
    Aspect of the area of the spine; "back" of a bipedal organism, upper half of a quadruped
  64. Drake
    Male duck
  65. Dry Cow
    Cow which is not producing milk
  66. Duodenum
    First section of the small intestine; contains ducts from the gall bladder and pancreas
  67. Duck
    Female duck
  68. Duckling
    Young duck
  69. Dystocia
    Difficulty or complications during calving
  70. Elastrator
    Tool used to apply the rubber band in castration or tail docking by elastration
  71. ELISA
    Immunoadsorbent assay which determines the presence or degree of action of an antigen or antibody through reaction with an enzyme-linked antibody or antigen to elicit a colour change of the solution
  72. Embryo
    Developing organism:

    • 1.) between the stages of cellular division and birth/hatching
    • 2.) first 45 days of pregnancy in cattle
  73. Endocrine
    Pertains to the system of glands which release hormones directly into the blood in order to effect metabolic changes
  74. Endogenous
    Produced or caused within an organism
  75. Enzyme
    Reaction-specific organic protein catalyst: intiates or increases speed of said reactions
  76. Epidemic
    Sudden and unusual rise in the incidence of an illness or disease within a certain population
  77. Epididymis
    Coiled tube in the male reproductive system, used in transporting sperm from the testis to the van deferens and storage of mature sperm
  78. Equine
    Pertaining to horses
  79. Eructation
    Belching of teh gaseous products of rumination (ie. CO2 and CH4)
  80. Erythrocyte
    Red blood cell
  81. Esophageal Groove
    Muscular tube which closes to allow milk to bypass the reticulorumen when a young ruminant is sucking
  82. Estrogen
    Female sex steroid; produced in the ovary; involved in estrus and development/maintaenance of secondary sex characteristics
  83. Estrous
    The entirety of the reproductive cycle, including periods of estrus and anestrus
  84. Estrus
    Period during a female reproductive cycle when the female is in heat and willing to mate
  85. Ewe
    Mature female sheep
  86. Ewe lamb
    Young female sheep
  87. Extensive management
    Production system which is based upon low input; mainly involves pasture and grazing
  88. Farrow
    To give birth to a litter of piglets
  89. Fatty Acid
    Organic acid which combines with glycerol to form fat
  90. Fawn
    Juvenile deer of either gender
  91. Fecal
    Pertaining to feces
  92. Feces
    Undigested material and endogenous materials which are expelled from the digestive tract via the anus
  93. Feed efficiency
    The units of feed required per unit of agricultural product; a lower amount of input per unit indiciates taht the animal can utilize feed more efficiently, and is an economic benefit when compared to an animal which utilizes feed less efficiently
  94. Feed Restriction
    Limiting the amount of feed the animal have access to; this can be accomplished through low amounts of diet or through low amounts of nutrients ina ration
  95. Feedstuff
    A substance deemed appropriate for use as an animal food
  96. Fertility/Fecundity
    Ability of an animal to reproduce; to produce viable gametes and offspring
  97. Fertilization
    Production of a zygote through syngamy of maternal and paternal gametes
  98. Fetus
    • 1.) Developing offspring once it has become recognizable (differentiated such that limbs are distinct)
    • 2.)Developing calf after the 45 day of pregnancy
  99. Finish
    Toprepare an animal for market by feeding to accumulate the desired amount of fat.
  100. Finisher
    Ration for animals ready for market
  101. First-calf Heifer
    Young female bovine that is pregnant with or nursing her first calf
  102. Follicle Stimuating Hormone
    Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; encourages development of oocytes or sperm
  103. Food stuff
    A substance deemed appropriate for use as a human food
  104. Forage
    Feedstuffs of mainly vegetative matter, such as hay, silage, or pasture
  105. Forced Molting (Forced Rest)
    Forcing a flock of laying chickens to lose their feathers in order to stimulate another (somewhat shorter) production cycle
  106. Fowl
    • 1.) Domesticated avian species
    • 2.) Female chicken at the end of 1 year of production
  107. Free Range
    Agricultural commodities produced to meet certain standards such that they are deemed 'free range'; for example, free range eggs are produced when laying hens are allowed access to the outdoors
  108. Free Run
    Agricultural commodities produced to meet certain standards such that they are deemed 'free run'; for example, free run eggs are produced when laying hens are not housed in cages, but are free-roaming on a floor
  109. Fresh
    Give birth
  110. Gamete
    Mature sex cell which is capable of fusing with another of the other sex to form a zygote
  111. Gene
    Unit of heredity, occupying a specific location on a chromosome
  112. Gestation
  113. Gizzard
    Digestive organ in avian species, distal to the proventriculus, which acts to reduce feed particle size by a grinding action of two large muscles
  114. Glucagon
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas; stimulates an increase in blood sugar levels by converting glycogen to glucose for use by the body
  115. Glycolysis
    Metabolic conversion of glucose to lactic acid, for use in further energy yielding metabolism
  116. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
    Hormone released from the hypothalamus; regulates the release of LH and FSH
  117. Growth Factors
    Substances which effect the growth and differentiation of cells/tissues/organs
  118. Growth Hormones
    Released by the anterior pituitary; stimulates growth
  119. Hatchability
    Proportion of eggs that hatch out in the number that were set in the incubator
  120. Hatcher
    Machine which artificually incubates eggs during that last three days of the incubation period, until the eggs hatch
  121. Health
    Well-being, emotionally, physically, and mentally
  122. Heifer
    Female bovine prior to first calving
  123. Heifer calf
    Female calf
  124. Heritability
    Proportion of variance amongst individuals that is attributable to differences in genetics
  125. Hen
    Mature female chicken (legally at 18 weeks), female turkey (also female duck, goose)
  126. Hormone
    Internal body secretion, carried via the blood to a specific destination in which it elicits a specific response
  127. Hunger
    Sensation of requirement of food
  128. Ileum
    Third and final section of the small intestine; nutrient absorption occurs here
  129. Impaction
    When a tubular structure of the body is blocked and passage of materials can not occur
  130. Incubator
    Machine which artificially incubates eggs for 18 days, prior to the transfer to the hatcher
  131. Infundibulum
    First section of the oviduct in avian species, responsible for catching the yolk upon ovulation; site of fertilization and a degree of sperm storage
  132. Insulin
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas; decreases blood sugar levels by converting glucose to glycogen for storage
  133. Intensive management
    Production system involving high production input costs; characterized by many animals being housed in close proximity
  134. Isthmus
    Third section of the oviduct in which shell membranes are added to an egg
  135. Jejunum
    Second and middle section of the small intestine; has an important role in nutrient absorption
  136. Lacatting
    When a cow is producing milk
  137. Lactational Anestrous
    A period of anestrous (either complete anestrous, or depressed reproductive ability) resulting from lactating to provide for the current offspring
  138. Large intestine
    Section of the digestive tract responsible for absorption of electrolytes and water; comprised of the cecum, colon, and rectum
  139. Lipid
    Substances soluble in fat solvents; include fats, oils, phospholipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins, fatty acids, and alcohols
  140. Luteinizing Hormone
    Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary; responsible for ovulation and development of the corpus luteum in females and testosterone production in males
  141. Mastitis
    Infection of the udder/teats
  142. Marbling
    Fat in muscle tissue
  143. Magnum
    Second section of the oviduct, in which the albumen portion of the egg is added
  144. Medullary Bone
    Bone type unique to avian species; found in the cortical bone; acts as a calcium source for eggshell development
  145. Metabolism
    All biochemical reactions occuring in an organism which reult in a capacity for normal life, function, and production
  146. Metritis
    Inflammation of the uterus
  147. Molt
    Shedding and regrowth of feathers
  148. Monogastric
    Pertaining to animals with a simple stomach; that is, not ruminants
  149. Neurohypophysis
    Posterior pituitary; releases oxytocin
  150. Offal
    Trimmings of an animal carcass; often considered without value as they are not consumed by humans
  151. Omasum
    Third compartment in the ruminent stomach, immediately prior to the abomasums; reduces particle size and absorbs nutrients
  152. Oocyte
    Immature egg, not fertilized; made up of meternal chromosomes and the species-specific amount of yolk
  153. Ovary
    Female gamete-producing organ; responsible for follicle production and secretion of sex hormones
  154. Oogenesis
    Formation, development, and maturation of ova
  155. Oviduct
    In avian species, the transport canal from the ovary to the cloaca, in which the component of the egg are added onto the yolk (follicle); in non-avian species, the transport canal from the ovary to the uterus
  156. Oviposition
    Laying of a complete egg
  157. Ovulation
    Release of a follicle from its position on the ovary into the oviduct
  158. Ovum
    Mature gamete of the female
  159. Oxytocin
    Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that is resposible for milk let down and smooth muscle contractions during parturition
  160. Parathyroid hormone
    Hormone secreted from the parathyroid gland; allows calcium extraction from bone when blood calcium levels are low
  161. Parity
    Litter of pigs; number denotes the number and order of litters had by a sow
  162. Parturition
  163. Pathogenic agent
    Factor that has the ability to cause disease under certain conditions
  164. Pathogenicity
    Ability of a pathogenic agent to infiltrate, infect, and multiply to such a degree so as to cause a disease in an animal
  165. Penis
    Male reproductive organ; comprised of urethra and vascularized erectile tissue which are both resposible for transmitting sperm into the female vagina
  166. Peristalsis
    Involuntary contractions of the smooth muscles lining tube-like structures in an animal's body; for example, in the digestive and reproductive tracts, serving to move fluids, digesta, etc., through the tube
  167. Pheromones
    Chemicals released by an animal which send signals to other animals of that species
  168. Photoperiod
    The timing in a one day period that animals have hours of light and hours of dark
  169. Photophase
    The hours in a photoperiod that are light
  170. Photostimulation
    The use of increased exposure to light (day length) in order to stimulate puberty and production
  171. Piglet
    Young pig
  172. Pipping
    The process by which a chick penetrates the air cell and shell at the commencement of hatching
  173. Porcine
    Pertaining to pigs
  174. Poulard
    Castrated female chicken
  175. Poult
    Newly-hatched turkey
  176. Poultry
    Domesticated avian species
  177. Progesterone
    Steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum (ovary); maintaines pregnancy in mammals and stimulates ovulation in avian species
  178. Prolactin
    Released by the anterior pituitary; stimulates milk production after parturition
  179. Prolapse
    When an organ or body has fallen from is normal position; for example, vaginal Prolapse
  180. Prostaglandins
    Hormone-like substances which have an important role in physiological reactions such as blood pressure, reaction to inflammation, and smooth muscle contraction
  181. Prostate Gland
    Male reproductive accessory gland; secretes alkaline fluid which is added to the semen to aid in transport and survival in the vaginal environment
  182. Proventriculus
    Avian equivalent of the true stomach - that is, it secretes enzymes and acid for feed breakdown; found between the crop and gizzard
  183. Proximal
    Antomical descriptor; indicates the location of something relatively close
  184. Pullet
    Young female chicken under 1 year of age
  185. Quota
    Minimum or maximum amount of an agricultural product that is required from a producer
  186. Rectum
    Last section of the large intestine prior to the anus; serves as a storage for feces
  187. Replacement heifer
    Young female bovine, from the time she is selected to be bred to the time of first calving and addition to the regular breeding herd
  188. Roaster
    Large broiler chicken which is meant to be cooked whole
  189. Reticulum
    First section of the ruminant stomach; involved in the movement of feed between the rumen, omasum, and esophagus, and in regurgitation of the bolus
  190. Rooster/cock
    Intact, mature male chicken
  191. Rumen
    Second and largest portion of the ruminant stomach; the rumen houses populations of anaerobic micro-organisms which are capable of degrading complex carbohydrates in order to synthsize nutrients for use by the animal
  192. Ruminant
    Animal with a stomach made up of four compartments
  193. Rumination
    Refers to the processes whereby feed is reguritated from the rumen, chewed and re-swallowed
  194. Serum
    Portion of any body fluid which remains after the solid components have been removed
  195. Sexing
    Determining if an offspring is male or female
  196. Shell gland
    Section of the oviduct prior to the vagina; where the shell and shell pigments (if present) are deposited
  197. Snood
    Flesh which hangs over the beak on a turkey
  198. Somatotropin
    Secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates growth
  199. Sow
    Female pig who has farrowed at least once
  200. Spent Fowl
    Reproductive chicken stock after the end of one laying cycle
  201. Spermatogenesis
    Formation, development, and maturation of sperm in the testis
  202. Stag
    Cockerel immediately prior to sexual maturity
  203. Stigma
    Line of ovulation in the outer covering of a follicle that is devoid of vascularization
  204. Stomach
    Section of the digestive tract between the esophagus and small intestine; portion in which chemical degradation occurs on ingested feeds; animals with a single stomach compartment are monogastric, animals with four compartments are ruminants
  205. Stress
    • Any factors which reduce an animal's resistance to disease, growth or production
    • Eustress - Positive stress
    • Distress - Negative stress
    • Cumulative stress - prolonged effects of stresses
  206. Supply Management
    Marketing system used to regulate the supply of agricultural product to the public, thereby maintaining a degree of stability in price for the consumer and demand for the producer. This system is administered through quotas, either maximal or minimal, and applies especially to milk and all poultry products
  207. Testis ( pl. testes)
    Male gamete-producing organ; responsible for the production of sperm and male sex hormones. The majority of the testis is comprised of seminiferous tubules, the site of sperm production
  208. Testosterone
    Steroid hormone secreted by the testis (one of a group of androgens - male sex steroids); encourages sperm production, controls accessory sex organs and secondary sex characteristics
  209. Tom
    Male turkey
  210. Trabecular Bone
    Internal matrix of bone; primarily for structural support
  211. Utero-vaginal Junction
    In avian species, the section where the shell gland joins the vagina; the site of the sperm storage tubules
  212. Ungulate
    Herbivorous, four-legged, hoofed animals
  213. Vagina
    In avian species, the section of the oviduct immediately prior to the cloaca
  214. Vas Deferens
    Muscular tube of the male reproductive system which transports sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra at the time of ejaculation
  215. Vent
    Opening of the cloaca, allowing reproductive and digestive products to reach the outside of the body
  216. Ventral
    Aspect away from the spine, 'front' of a bipedal animal, the lower half of a quadruped
  217. Vesicular Glands/Seminal Vesicles
    Male reproductive accessory gland; adds an alkali secretion which includes fructose to the sperm
  218. Viscera
    Internal organs of an animal
  219. Wattles
    Flaps of flesh hanging from the bottom of the beak in chickens and turkeys
  220. Zygote
    Diploid cell formed upon syngmay of male and female gametes
  221. Diet
    Combination of feedstuffs provided on a determined schedule; should provide the necessary nutrients in sufficient quatities for health, growth and production
  222. Ration
    Amount of diet to be provided per unit of time
  223. Pre-mix
    Prepared mixture of micro-nutrients which are added to the feed in order to ensure all nutrient requirement are met in a diet
  224. Silage
    Feed preserved by fermentation
  225. Anitbiotic
    Medicant used in combating a bacterial infection
Card Set:
2012-01-30 17:36:38

Show Answers: