Exam 2- Review Sheet spr20101111.docx

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Exam 2- Review Sheet spr20101111.docx
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  1. Supportive communication- Congruent
    • a match between what an individual is thinking
    • and feeling

    • Incongruence- mismatch between what one is
    • experiencing and what one is aware of

    • Mismatch between what one thinks or feels and
    • what one communicates

    • When building interpersonal relationships and
    • when coaching and counseling other genuine honest statements are always better
    • than artificial dishonest statements

    • Managers who do not express what is on their
    • minds, creates an impression that there is a hidden agenda. Thus trust is less and focus is more on
    • trying to figure out what the hidden message is. Stays superficial and
    • disrupting

    • Establishes mutual trust and respect in the
    • relationship

    • Prerequisite of trust- genuineness and
    • authenticity lie at the heart of positive relationships

    • Matching the content of the words spoken to the
    • communicators manner and tone of voice
  2. Supportive Communication- Descriptive
    • Is descriptive and reduces the tendency
    • to evaluate and cause defensiveness.

    • Describes objectively the event, behavior, or
    • circumstance

    • Avoid accusations

    • Present data and evidence

    • Three clients have complained to me this month
    • that you have not responded to their requests

    • Focus on the behavior and your reaction, not on
    • the other person attributes

    • Describe your reactions and feelings

    • Describe the objective consequences that have
    • resulted or will result

    • I’m worried because each client has threatened
    • to go elsewhere to go elsewhere if we aren’t more responsive

    • Focus on solutions

    • Avoid discussing who’s right and wrong

    • Suggest an acceptable alternative

    • Be open to other alternatives

    • It is not evaluative- makes a judgment of places
    • a label on other individuals on their behavior

    • Not one person should do all the changing,
    • middle ground must be reached in order to meet satisfies
  3. supportive communication-

    Problem-Oriented
    • Is problem-oriented and does not focus on
    • personal traits which cannot be changed

    • Your dress is not keeping with the companies
    • dress code instead of I don’t like the way you dress
  4. supportive communication
    • Validates and helps others feel
    • recognized, understood, accepted, and valued.

    • Invalidating communication conveys superiority,
    • rigidity, indifference, imperviousness

    • Superiority oriented communication- put downs,
    • making one person look bad to make urself look good

    • Rigidity in communication- the communication is
    • portrayed as absolute, unequivocal, or unquestionable. No other point of view
    • would be considered. Know it all way. Never answering I don’t know but always
    • having an answer

    • Indifference- is communicated when the other
    • persons existence or importance is not acknowledge. Maybe by silence, by making
    • no verbal response to the other statement, by avoiding eye contact or any
    • facial expression, by interrupting the other person frequently, by using
    • impersonal words, or by engaging in unrelated activities during the
    • conversation

    • Imperviousness- does not acknowledge the
    • feelings or opinions of the other person

    • Validating communication- makes them feel self
    • worth and self confidence that can translate into self motivation and improved
    • performance

    • Egalitarian-

    • Flexible- is the willingness of a person to
    • communicate an understanding that the other party may possess additional data
    • and other alternatives that may make significant contributions both to the
    • problem solution and the relationship. Being receptive to people. Willingness
    • to learn and be open to new experience

    • Two-way- result of respectfulness and
    • flexibility. the other person is valued.

    • Based on agreement- identify positive behaviors, positive attitudes, and
    • positive consequences. Makes progress possible
  5. Supportive communication-

    Specific
    • Is specific and identifies something that
    • can be understood and acted upon.

    • The more specific the better it is at motivating
    • improvement

    • You spent an hour scheduling meetings today when
    • that could have been done by your assistant.

    • Avoid extremes and absolutes such as either or
    • statements because they deny an alternative example Hitler- everyone is Germany
    • is a national socialist, the few outside parties are either lunatics or idiots

    • Specific statements are more useful in
    • interpersonal relationships because they focus on behavioral events and
    • indicate gradations in positions. The pressure to tmeet the deadlines affects
    • the quality of my work

    • Focus on the identifiable problem or behavior in
    • which something can be done
  6. Supportive communication-

    Conjunctive
    • and joined to a previous message and flows
    • smoothly

    • Can become disjunctive and 3 ways. 1 there can
    • be a lack of equal opportunity to speak, 2 extended pauses, 3 topic control

    • Conjunctive- taking turns speaking, msnshrmrnt
    • of timing, and topic control

    • Asking questions that are based directly on the
    • subordinates previous statement, by waiting for a sentence to be completed
    • before beginning a response and by saying only 3 or 4 sentences before letting
    • the other person a chance to add

    • Interaction, exchange, and give and take are
    • necessary for supportive communication avoids long pauses, their statements
    • refer to what has been said before, and take turns speaking
  7. Supportive communication-


    Owned
    • Is owned and acknowledges the source of
    • the idea. Ownership conveys
    • responsibility. Taking responsibility for ones statements and acknowledging
    • that the source of the ideas is oneself and not another person or group

    • Statements such as I me and mine

    • Disowning communications is suggested by use of
    • third person or first person plural words we think, they said is attributed to
    • an unknown person, group, or to some external source. They avoid taking
    • responsibility

    • Ownership and responsibility are keys to
    • personal growth and to trusting and effective interpersonal relationships
  8. Advising
    • ·
    • Provides direction, evaluation, personal
    • opinion, or instruction

    • ·
    • Creates listener control over the topic

    • ·
    • Can produce dependence

    • ·
    • Advantage- helps the communicator understand
    • something that may have been unclear before, it helps identify a problem
    • solution, and it can provide clarity about how the communicator should act or
    • interpret the problem

    • ·
    • Most appropriate when the listener has expertise
    • that the communicator doesn’t possess or when the communicator is in need of
    • direction

    • ·
    • Disadvantage- produce dependence, creates the
    • impression that the communicator is not being understood by the listener, it
    • shifts focus from the communicators issue to the listeners advice, and it can
    • imply the the communicator don’t have the necessary understanding, expertise,
    • insight, or maturity so they need help because of their incompetence

    • ·
    • Avoid giving advise as a first response- show
    • concern and personal interest

  9. Deflecting
    • ·
    • Switches the focus from communicator’s problem
    • to on selected by the listener

    • ·
    • Appropriate if reassurance is needed- can
    • provide empathy and support by communicating the message I understand because
    • of what happened to me, or Things will be fine other have also had this
    • experience, it is also used to avoid embarrassing either the communicator or
    • the listener

    • ·
    • Disadvantage- Imply that the communicator’s
    • issues are not important, competitiveness or feelings of being one upped but e
    • listener, can simply change the subject from something that is important and
    • central to the communicator to a topic that is not important

    • ·
    • Most effective when they are conjunctive ( when
    • they are clearly connected to what the communicator just said, when the
    • listeners response leads directly back to the communicators concerns and when
    • the reason for deflection is made clear. Communicator must feel understood and
    • supported

  10. Probing
    • · Asks
    • questions about what the communicator said

    • · Used
    • to gather information, to help the communicator say more about the topic, or to
    • help the listener foster more appropriate responses

    • · Can
    • appear that the communicator must justify what is happening

    • · Use
    • what questions not why questions

    • · Four
    • types of probes are useful

    • o
    • Elaboration probe- use when more info is needed,
    • Can you tell me more about that

    • o Clarification
    • probe- use when the message is unclear or ambiguous what do you mean by that

    • o Repetition
    • probe- when communicator is avoiding the topic hasn’t answered a previous
    • question, or a previous statement is unclear use when topic drift occurs or
    • statements are unclear once again, what do you think about this

    • o Reflection
    • probe- use to encourage more in-depth pursuit of the same topic you say
    • you are having difficulty

    • ·
    • Asking questions can often turn attacks into
    • consensus, evaluations into descriptions, general statements into specific
    • statements, disowning statements into owning statements, or person focused
    • declarations into problem focused declarations . helps make supportive
    • communication by taking attacks and putting them into questions

  11. Reflecting
    • ·
    • Mirror back to the communicator the message that
    • was heard

    • ·
    • Involves paraphrasing and clarifying shows the
    • communicator is being listened to, understood, and free to explore the topic in
    • m ore depth

    • ·
    • Disadvantage- Could appear that the listener
    • isn’t listening, avoid repeating the same responses over and over, avoid
    • mimicking the communicators words, avoid exchange in which listeners do not
    • contribute equally to the conversation, but serve only as mimics, respond to
    • the personal rather than the impersonal, respond to expressed feelings before
    • responding to content, respond with empathy and acceptance, avoid expressing
    • agreement or disagreement with the statement
  12. Sources of Conflict:

    Personal Differences
    • individuals
    • bring different backgrounds to their roles in organizations, values and
    • needs have been shaped by different socialization processes, depending on
    • their cultural and family traditions, level of education, breadth of
    • experience
  13. Sources of conflict:

    Informational Deficiencies
    • :
    • Conflicts evolve from misinformation and misunderstanding. Easy to resolve because value systems
    • are not challenged thus being less emotional
  14. Sources of Conflict

    Role Incompatibility
    • From the perception that assigned goals and
    • responsibilities compete with those of others
  15. sources of conflict

    Environmentally Induced Stress
    • Results from the stressful events of the
    • organizational environment, due to scarcity- induced stress such as downsizing
    • of a company, uncertainty because if people are unsure it caused anxiety
  16. Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management
    Approach:

    Forcing
    • (assertive
    • and uncooperative)- an attempt to satisfy one’s own needs at the expense
    • of the needs of the other individual. Can be done by using formal authority,
    • physical threats, manipulation ploys, or by ignoring the claims of the
    • other party
  17. Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management
    Approach:

    Accommodating
    • (cooperative
    • and unassertive)- satisfies the other party’s concerns whiling neglecting
    • ones own concerns. Both parties
    • normally lose, wants to preserve a friendly relationship, may lower self
    • esteem because people take advantage of you
  18. Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management
    Approach

    Avoiding
    • (unassertive
    • and uncooperative)- neglects the interests of both party’s by sidestepping
    • the conflict or postponing a
    • solution, this is often the response of managers who are
    • emotionally ill-prepared to cope with the stress associated with
    • confrontations, or it might reflect recognition that a relationship is not
    • strong enough to absorb the fallout of an intense conflict. Can cause
    • frustration for others because issues never seem to get resolved, really
    • tough problems are avoided because of their high potential for conflict,
    • and subordinates engaging in conflict are reprimanded for undermining the
    • harmony of the work group
  19. Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management
    Approach


    Compromising
    • (intermediate
    • between assertiveness and cooperativeness) – attempt to obtain partial
    • satisfaction for both parties, in the sense hat both receive the
    • proverbial half loaf. Both parties are asked to make sacrifices to obtain
    • a common gain. It indiscriminate use is counterproductive because it may
    • show the managers are more interested in solving disputes than solving
    • problems
  20. Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management
    Approach

    Collaborating
    • (assertive
    • and cooperative)- attempt to address fully the concerns of both parties.
    • Often referred to as the problem solving mode. Intent is find soluions to
    • the cause of the conflict that are satisfactory to both parties rather
    • than to find fault or assign blame. Both parties feel they have one with
    • this method. One win-win strategy among the five. Most beneficial effect
    • on the involved parties because is encourages norms of collaboration and
    • trust while acknowledging the value of assertiveness . focus on the
    • problem not the personalities
  21. Personal preferences- ethnicity, gender, personality.
    • Ethnicity
    • is reflected in individual’s preferences for the five responses. Asian cultures use accommodating and
    • avoiding Americans and south Africans prefer the forcing approach Gender
    • males are more likely to use the forcing approach, whereas females tend to
    • select the compromising approachThere
    • is little evidence of gender differences in abilities and skills related
    • to conflict managementEvidence
    • suggests that sex role expectations appear to influence behavior and
    • perceptions of behavior in particular conflict situationsInfluences
    • and norms other than sex role expectations may affect and influence
    • conflict and behaviorThe
    • experience and meaning of conflict may differ for women and menThere
    • is a persistence of beliefs in gender linked behavior even when these
    • behaviors are not found in
    • researchPersonality
    • type-Altruistic-
    • nurturing personalities seeks to gratification through promoting harmony
    • with others and enhancing their welfare, with little concern for being
    • rewarded in return. Trust, optimism, idealism, and loyalty. Conflict is
    • dealt with by accommodating the demands for the other partyAssertive-directing
    • personality- seeks gratification through self assertion and directing the
    • activities of others with a clear sense of having earned rewards. Be
    • self-confident, enterprising, and persuasive. Use the forcing approachAnalytic-autonomizing
    • personality- seeks gratification through the achievement of
    • self-sufficiency, self reliance, and logical orderliness. Is cautious,
    • practical, methodical, and principled.
  22. Situation considerations
    • the approach that is used may depend on issue importance,
    • relationship importance, relative power, and time constraints p. 287

    • How
    • important is the disrupted issue (high: extremely important, low not very
    • important)How
    • important is the relationship? (high critical, ongoing, one of a kind,
    • partnership Low one time transaction, for which there are readily
    • available alternativesWhat
    • is the relative level of power, or authority between the disputants? (High
    • boss to subordinates, equal: Peers, Low subordinates to boss)To
    • what extent is time a significant constraint in resolving dispute? (High:
    • Must resolve the dispute quickly, Low: Subordinate to boss)
  23. Problem Identification: Initiator
    • InitiatorMaintain
    • personal ownership of problemDescribe
    • problem in terms of behaviors, consequences, and feelingsAvoid
    • drawing conclusions and attributing motivesPersist
    • until understoodEncourage
    • two-way discussionManage
    • the agenda; approach multiple or complex problems incrementally
  24. Problem Identification

    Responder
    • Responder Establish a climate for joint problem
    • solving by showing genuine interest and concernSeek
    • additional information by asking questionsAgree
    • with some aspect of the complaint
  25. Problem idenitification Mediators Role
    • Mediator’s
    • Roleacknowledge
    • hat a conflict exists and propose a problem solving approach for
    • resolving itMaintain
    • a neutral posture regarding the disputantsServe
    • as facilitator, not judgeManage
    • discussion to ensure fairness
  26. Solution Generation; Initiator
    • Initiator
    • Focus
    • on commonalities as the basis for requesting a change
  27. Solution Generation

    Responder
    • Ask
    • for suggestions of acceptable alternatives
  28. Soultion generation Mediator
    • MediatorExplore
    • options by focusing on interests; Create
    • agreement on action plan and follow-up

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