Organizational Behaviour - Ch 3

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Organizational Behaviour - Ch 3
2012-01-28 14:43:57


Quiz - Ch 3
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  1. Learning
    a relatively permanent change in behaviour that is caused by experience.
  2. memory
    The process of acquiring information and storing overtime so that it will be available when needed.
  3. Behavioural Learning Theories
    It assumes that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.
  4. Classical Conditioning
    It occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own.
  5. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    Natural capable of causing the response. (powder)
  6. Conditioned Stimulus
    What the bell becomes over time - it did not initially caused salivation , but the dogs learned to associate the bell with meat powder and began to salivate at the sound of the bell only.
  7. Conditioned response (CR)
    The drooling caused by a sound now linked to feeding time.
  8. Stimulus Generalization
    It refers to the tendency os stimuli similar to a CS to evoke similar conditioned responses.
  9. Marked branding
    Strategy that hides a product's true origin
  10. Stimulus Discrimination
    It occurs when a stimulus similar to a CS is not followed by UCS.
  11. Brand Equity
    Brand has a strong positive associations in a consumer;s memory and commands a lot of loyalty as a results.
  12. Advertising Wearout
    Consumers can become so used to hearing and seeing a marketing stimulus thay they no longer pay attention to it.
  13. Instrumental Conditioning
    it occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviours thay produce positive outcome and to avoid those that yield negative outcome.
  14. Shaping
    Desired behaviour may be learned over a period of time, as intermediate actions are rewarded in the process.
  15. Positive Reinforcement
    Form of a reward, the response is strengthened and appropriate behaviour is learned.
  16. Negative Reinforcement
    It also strengthens responses so that appropriate behaviour is learned (perfume example)
  17. Punishment
    IT occurs when a reponse is followed by unplesant events.
  18. Frequency MArketing
    Popular technique that reinforces behavour of regular purchasers by giving them prizes with values thay increase along with the amount purchased.
  19. Cognitive
    It stresses the importance of internal mental processes.
  20. Observational Learning
    It occurs when people watch the actions of others and nite the reinforcement they receive for their behaviours
  21. Attention --> Retention --> Production Processes -> Motivation --> Observational Learning
  22. Encoding
    information is entered in a way the system will recognize.
  23. Storage
    This knowledge is integrated with what is already in memory and "warehoused" until needed.
  24. Retrieval
    The mind accesses the desired information.
  25. External Inputs - Encoding - Storage - Retrieval
  26. Sensory memory
    permits sotrage of the information we receive from oour senses. This storage is very temporary - less than 1 second
  27. Short term memory
    It stores information for a limited period of time. Less than 20 seconds
  28. Chunking
    The information is stored by combining small pieces into larger ones
  29. Long-term memory
    System that allows us to reti informatio for a long period of time.
  30. Elaborative reheasal
    Used for information to enter into long term memory from short term memory
  31. Activation models of memory
    The more effort it takes to process information, the more likely is that information will be placed in long tem memory
  32. Knowledge Structures
    Complex spider webs filled with perces of data
  33. Spreading Activation
    It allows consumers to shift back and forth between levels of meaning.
  34. Schema
    Cognitive framework that is developed through experience
  35. Script
    Sequence of procedures that is expected by an individual
  36. State - Dependent Retrieval
    People are better able to access information if their internal state is the same at the time of recall as it was when the information was leaned.
  37. Salience
    It refers to its prominence or level of activation in memory.
  38. Von Restorff
    This effect explains why unusual advertising or distinctive packaging tends to facilitate brand recall.
  39. Unipolar emotions
    We recall mixed emotions (those with positive and negative comeponents)differently than ... (those that are either wholly positive or wholly negative).
  40. Interference
    As additional information is learned, it displaces earlier information.
  41. Nostalgia
    has been described as a bittersweet emotion, where the past is viewed with both sadness and longing.
  42. Retrobrand
    Is am updated version of a brand from a prior historical period.
  43. Response Bias
    Results obtained from a measuring instrument are not necessarily caused by what is being measdured, but rather to something else about the instrument or the respondent.