Science test

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Science test
2012-02-11 18:23:31
science quiz environmental bio 160

bio 160 unit 1 test ch 1-6, 11
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  1. Experimental Variable
    That which the experimenter alters to see if there are changes in…
  2. Dependent Variable
    That which changes due to experimentation
  3. Controlled Variable
    Experimental variable that is kept constant. Used as a baseline, or a control
  4. Scientific Theory
    Widely accepted, plausible generalization about fundamental concepts to explain why something happens.
  5. Scientific Law
    Constant fact that describe what happens
  6. scientific method
    • 1. Make observation
    • 2. Ask question
    • 3. Form hypothesis
    • 4. Test hypothesis
    • 4a. Communicate with other scientists
    • 4b. Revise hypothesis
    • 5. Draw conclusions
    • 6. Show fit with current scientific theories or laws or develp new theory or law
  7. Exothermic Reaction
    Releases energy upon completion
  8. Endothermic Reaction
    Requires energy to complete
  9. Activation Energy
    Energy required to begin reaction
  10. Catalyst
    Protein component used to speed reaction rate
  11. First Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy can be neither created, nor destroyed
  12. Second Law of Thermodynamics:
    When energy is converted to other forms, some usable energy is lost. The lost useful energy is called: entropy
  13. Consequence of energy conversion
    pollution (as wasted energy).
  14. basic assumptions of science
    • 1. There are specific causes for observed events
    • 2. The causes can be identified
    • 3. General patterns can be used to describe what happens in nature
    • 4. Repeated events likely have same cause
    • 5. Perception of a person not the same as another person
    • 6. Same fundamental rules apply regardless of where they occur
  15. Environmental Ethics
    • Branch of philosophy that seeks to define what is right and wrong
    • Goal of governance of a region: Make laws match ethical commitments
  16. Anthropocentrism
    • environment provides value to humans
    • (protect it only when it benefits humans)
  17. biocentrism
    all living organisms have an inherent value
  18. ecocentrism
    ecosystems (in addition to the organisms they contain) have inherent value
  19. Natural Capitalism
    Increase profits while protecting environment
  20. Environmental Economics
    Promote accounting techniques to include social and economic costs in doing business so that those costs aren’t externalized
  21. Industrial Ecology
    • Models industrial production and biological production
    • Waste is used elsewhere
  22. Development (environmental attitude)
    humans are and should be the master of nature and the Earth and its resources exist soley for our benefit and pleasure
  23. preservation (attitude)
    kida that you just want to stay away from messing up nature. just leave it alone
  24. conservation (attitude)
    to utilize something without destroying it
  25. sustainable development (attitude)
    invloves the environment and other aspects like social and economic development without effecting other generations too much
  26. kinetic molecular theory
    all matter is made up of tiny moving particles
  27. matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  28. protons
    • positive
    • neutral
    • negative
  29. isotopes
    atoms from the same element that different in their number of neutrons
  30. molecules
    atoms that bond together chemeically to form stable units
  31. ion
    atoms that gain or lose electrons and become electrically charged particles
  32. acid
    any compound that releases hydrogen into a solution
  33. base
    any compound that accepts hydrogen in a solution
  34. pH
    • scale that measures concentration of acids and bases
    • pH 7 is neutral
    • pH less than 7, acidic
    • pH more than 7, basic
  35. respiration
    atmospheric oxygen breaks down large organic molecules into smaller inorganic molecuels and releases energy.
  36. kinetic energy
    energy contained by moving objects
  37. potential energy
    energy matter has because of its position
  38. formula for photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H20 => C6H12O6 + 6O2
  39. energy quality
    energy's usefullness to us. electrical energy is better quality than the energy in the ocean
  40. ecology
    study of ways organisms interact with each other and their environment
  41. biotic factors
    All forms of life an organism interacts with
  42. abiotic factors
    Nonliving things that influence an organism like energy, space, matter etc
  43. limiting factor
    restrictst the success of a species
  44. natural selection
    process that leads to the close fit between characteristics that organisms display relative to the demands of their environment.
  45. speciation
    The production of new species from previously existing species.
  46. Coevolution
    Two or more species influence each other reciprocally along the pathway of evolution
  47. Parasitism
    One organism is harmed while another one benefits
  48. Commensalism
    One organism benefits. The other is completely unaffected
  49. Mutualism
    Both organisms benefit. Neither is harmed
  50. Trophic Levels
    Each step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem
  51. Nitrogen cycle
    • nitrogen exists in the atmosphere (N2)
    • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (lichen) exists to break the strong bond between the N2 molecules so it can be used for plant consumption
  52. Carbon Cycle
    • carbon and oxygen combined is carbon dioxide and is used in photosynthesis (endothermic reaction)
    • plants grow and we eat them
    • we respire (respiration- breakdown of molecules into CO2 and H2O) and we put the CO2 and H2O back into the atmosphere
    • decomposers recycle
  53. phosphorus
    phosphorus is necessary for DNA
  54. Biome
    terrestrial climax with wide geographic distribution
  55. climax community
    stable long-lasting community that is the result of succession
  56. succession
    concept that communities proceed through predictable recognizeable changes in structure over time
  57. primary succession
    • progression that begins with a total lack of organisms and bare mineral surface or water
    • bare rock
    • lichens
    • small annual plants
    • grasses, shrubs, shade intolerant trees
    • shade tolerant trees
  58. Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • desert- many species but small #s, small human impact
    • temperate grassland-large grazers, agriculture impact
    • tropical rainforest-extremely diverse, deforestation
    • temperate deciduous forest-SC, trees shed, agriculture
    • savanna- short rain period, still well preserved
    • tropical dry forest- 2 seasons wet & dry, ship out wood
    • medditeranean shrublands (chaparral)- S Cali, now cities
    • northern coniferous forest (taiga or boreal) snowy trees
    • temperate rain forest-always rain, lush plants, logging
    • tundra- super cold, permafrost
  59. aquatic ecosystems
    • marine/pelagic- open ocean, near surface, phytoplankton produce, zooplankton feed on them
    • benthic-bottom of ocean, coral reef, abyss, tide pools,
    • estuaries- freshwater meets sea water, very productive, fish nursuries, human impact is sewage, farming, fishing boating etc
    • endangered species threatens biodiversity within the species
    • Animals prone to extinction have:
    • 1) low population density
    • 2) found in small area
    • 3) specialized niche
    • 4) low reproductive rates
    • number of different kinds of genes present in a population or species
    • 5 things that influence genetic biodiversity
    • 1) mutations: DNA, 1 protein is different from the rest
    • 2) migrations: introducing or removing some species
    • 3) sexual reproduction: increases the overall gene pool
    • 4) population size: increases genetic diversity
    • 5) seletive breeding: breed it with other traits you want/like
    • richness- number of different kinds of species in an area (which is hard to find out)
    • influences on species diversity
    • 1) geologic and evolutionary history
    • 2) migration
    • 3) size of an area
    • 4) human activity
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Cutural Uses (it looks pretty)
    • flood and erosion control
    • waste treatment
    • raw materials and food
    • atmospheric and climate services
    • recreation
    • biological control
    • pollination
    • genetic resources
    • soil formation
  64. Threats to Biodiversity
    • habitat loss
    • overexploitation
    • invasive species
    • predator, pest control
    • climate change
    • plantatioin forestry
    • grazing practices