Diagnostic TEsts and Specimen Collection

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Diagnostic TEsts and Specimen Collection
2012-01-29 20:18:12
Diagnostic tests

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  1. How often should wounds be assessed
    once per shift for signs of infection
  2. When should the patients pretest med arrive on the unit
    1 - 2 hours before scheduled test time
  3. Hematology tests
    • study of blood and its components
    • CBC
  4. When infection is severe, bone marrow releases extra
  5. Common tests for clotting time are...
    • prothrombin (PT) - sodium warfarin aka coumadin
    • activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) - heparin
  6. hematocrit
    ratio of blood cells to plasma
  7. For how long are food an drink withheld prior to blood chemistry tests?
    8 - 12 hours
  8. Which tests are used to measure liver function?
    • bilirubin
    • alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
    • alkaline phosphate (ALP)
  9. Which tests measure kidney function?
    • blood urine nitrogen (BUN)
    • creatinine
  10. Which tests measure heart damage?
    • lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    • creaine kinase (CK)
    • aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  11. What is a panel?
    a group of tests
  12. What is the purpose of a serology test?
    • analysis of blood serum
    • used to diagnose diseases related to bacterial and viral infection
    • antigen antibodies will determine exposure to certain diseases
  13. Urinalysis
    • information regarding kidney function
    • a urine dipstick is often used
  14. Name the 3 types of urine specimen
    • 1. single, catheterized or random: collected at any time, no special prep
    • 2. midstream: external genitalia are cleansed, small amount of urine passed, midportion of stream is collected
    • 3. timed
  15. Histology and cytology
    • require biopsies
    • involve the study of tissues and cells
    • detect changes that are carcinogenic, metabolic, vascular et al
  16. Ultrasound
    • uses ultrasonic waves to determine pathology of female organs, prostate, heart, kidney, pancreas, gallbladder, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, thyroid, eye and peripheral blood vesels
    • often used along with radiography or nuclear medicine scans
    • abdominal scans require pt to drink 1 liter of water
  17. Common radiologic procedures
    • chest x-ray
    • barium swallow and upper GI serie
    • barium enema and samall bowel series
    • kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) x-ray
    • gallbladder series adn cholangiogram
    • intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    • x-rays of they bony skeleton, arthrogram and myelogram
    • CT and CAT scans
  18. Radionuclide scans
    • various organs and soft tissues attract and concenctrate certain radionuclides
    • a scanner (scintillator) is passed over the area
    • organs scanned: thyroid, kidneys, brain, liver, lungs, bones, pericardium and blood volme is determined
  19. Computed Tomography (CT scan)
    computer enhances multiple x-rays of the body and provides horizontal views to determine tissue density and guide instruments
  20. CT angiography
    contrast medium used to determine pulmonary embolism adn arteriovenous malformation, determine patency of coronary arteries adn detect blood flow patterns to tumors
  21. cardiac catheterization
    • consent required
    • procedure to determine teh function of heart, valves and coronary circulation
    • helps diagnose coronary artery disease and valvular dysfunction
    • catheter is threaded into an artery or vein and injects a contrast medium
    • a fluoroscope is used to observe heart action
    • bed rest for 2 - 12 hours afterwards
    • NPO for 6 hours prior
  22. Electron beam tomography
    • used to measure calcification of coronary arteries
    • predict risk of coronary occlusion or myocardial infarction
    • non-invasive
  23. Angiography and arteriography
    • contrast medium injected into an artery and x-rays track movement through vessels
    • locates lesions, occluded vessels, tumors and malformed blood vessels
    • NPO for 6 hours
    • consent form required
  24. Gastroscopy
    • visual inspection of the upper digestive tract and stomach
    • biopsy or specimens of gastric contents may be obtained
    • NPO 8 hours
  25. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    diagnoses brain lesions, scars, epilepsy, infections, blood clots and abscesses
  26. cytoscopy
    • visual inspection of the bladder for collection of biopsy specimens, collection of urine from each ureter respectively
    • sometimes used with intravenous pyelogram
  27. platelet count range
    150 - 400