What the most abundant component of almost all living cells, is essential for cellular functioning and makes up between 65% and 75% of an average cell's mass?
No living organism can survive without what?
Water is an excellent dissolving medium or ______
What is able to separate and surround many different kinds of solutes (dissolving substances)?
What are able to produce hydrogen ions (H+) whenthey dissociate (dissolve) in water?
Most _____ produce or releasehydroxide ions (OH-) when they dissociate (dissolve) in water.
What are substances which dissociate (dissolve) in water to form ions (charged particles) other than H+or OH-?
What is a measure of the amount of H+ in a solution?
pH value 7 is described as ____. (At this pH, the H+ concentration is equal to the OH- concentration.)
pH values below 7 (ex., 3 or 5, with more H+ present than OH-) are described as _______.
pH values above 7 (ex.,10 or 12, with less H+ present than OH-) are described as ___ or ____.
basic or alkaline
What are substances which microorganisms possess (or which may be added to the organisms' culture or growth media) that help keep the pH from changing too drastically so that microorganisms can survive.
If, as living organisms (like bacteria) grow, the pH changes too much, bacterial __________ may be inhibited,and the bacteria may ______
Carbon is found in ______ molecules, which are relatively complex and are capable of complicated biological functions.
Organic macromolecules such as_____ ______, ______, ______ are assembled in living cells and are important to cells' survival
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Carbon atoms form how many covalent bonds with each other (or with other chemical elements)?
What are assembled in living cells and are important to cells' survival?
The principle function ofcarbohydrates is to ________ by serving as a ready source of _____
fuel cell activities
Monosaccharides, or single-sugar carbohydrates are what very common hexose (containing 6 carbon atoms)?
What is the main energy supplying molecule for living cells?
Other biologically important monosaccharides are the pentoses, such as ____ present in the nucleic acid DNA.
Cells form chemical bonds, such as those linking multiple monosaccharides together, through a type of reaction known as ___.
A molecule of ________ is released when dehydration synthesis occurs.
Cells digest (break down)disaccharides and larger carbohydrates by adding _______ molecules between sugar units.
What is hydrolysis?
when cells digest disaccharides and larger carbs by adding water between sugar
What are essential to the structure and function of membranes which separate living cells from their environments?
Cell membranes contain two rows(a bilayer) of ______, each made of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group.
What enable the cell membrane to act as a barrier separating the contents of a cell from the water-based environment around the cell?
Waxes (such as those present inthe cell walls of acid fast bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are considered to be a type of complex _____.
What are organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur?
What typically make up 50% or more of a cell's dry weight (weight of the cell after water hasbeen removed from it)?
What are proteins which speed up cells' chemical reactions?
What are the building blocks of proteins?
How many different amino acids occur naturally in proteins?
One protein may contain from 50 to hundreds of ____ molecules arranged in an almost infinite number of ways. This allows cells to form a practically endless number of different proteins.
Chemical bonds between ___ in proteins are called ___ bonds
Peptide bonds are formed by ____ reactions as water is removed between units.
The unique, genetically-determined order (or sequence) of the amino acids in a proteingives the protein its ____ structure, while its _____ structure involves the twisting or folding of the polypeptide chain.
What structure gives each proteina unique three-dimensional shape?
Some proteins also have _____ structure, with two or more individual polypeptide chains aggregating together to form the functional protein
The overall shape of a protein may be _______ (compact and relatively spherical) or______ (long, thin, and thread-like).
Extreme temperature, extreme pH, and other extreme conditions may cause protein ____, with loss of normalshape and functioning.
DNA and RNA are both considered to be _______.
Both DNA and RNA are made of building block structural units known as _____.
Each nucleotide is comprised of what three subunits
The four nitrogen-containingbases in DNA are: _____
The pentose sugar in DNA is ______.
The four nitrogen-containingbases in RNA are:
The pentose sugar in RNA is ________.
In each _____-stranded DNA molecule, the nitrogen-containing bases on the separate strands hydrogen-bond(pair) with each other.
In DNA the nitrogen-containing base adenine (A) always pairs with the nitrogen-containing base____
The nitrogen-containing base guanine (G) always pairs with the nitrogen-containing base _____.
What type of chemical reaction is responsible for bonding the separate nucleotides to each other during DNA replication?
Adenosine triphosphate (abbreviated ___) is the main energy-carrying molecule used by all cells.
What stores the chemical energy released by certain chemical reactions, and it provides the energy required in order for other chemical reactions to occur?
ATP is made up of ____ and ____, with three ______ attached.
Based on its name and structure, is ATP chemically moresimilar to carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids?