Biology 172 Lecture 8

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clintave
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131233
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Biology 172 Lecture 8
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2012-01-28 17:30:19
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Biology 172 Lecture exam review
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Biology 172 Lecture 8 exam review
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  1. Deoxyribose in DNA lacks a ______ atom on ____
    • oxygen
    • 2'C
  2. DNA molecules
    • H-bonds between bases
    • Complementary base-pairing
    • Anti-parallel strands
    • Double helix
    • Secondary structure
  3. Hydrogen bonds form between _-_ pairs and _-_ pairs in DNA
    • G-C
    • A-T
  4. The secondary structure of DNA
    is a double helix made up of two anti-parallel stands
  5. How cells are studied
    • Microscopy
    • Cell fractionation
    • Selective disruption, inhibition. perturbation
  6. Light Microscope
    contrast resolution
  7. Electron Microscopy
    Uses a beam of electrons instead of light to create an image
  8. What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
    • Proks lack nuclear membrane
    • Proks lack organelles
    • Proks are usually much smaller
  9. Structures in All Cells
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Ribosomes
    • Regions with DNA
    • Extracellular structures
  10. Structures in Prokaryotic Cells
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Ribosomes
    • Regions with DNA
    • Extracellular structures
  11. Plasma Membrane
    • all cells
    • provides a selectively permeable barrier: boundary and filter
    • phospholipid bilayer
  12. Cytoplasm
    • all cells
    • everything inside the cell (except nucleus)
    • cytosol - fluid portion of cytoplasm - including dissolved molecules
  13. Ribosomes
    • all cells
    • protein-RNA complex (molecular machine) that functions in protein synthesis
    • not considered organelles)
    • All cells translate genetic information into protein in the same way
  14. Nucleoid
    • prokaryotes
    • area where chromosome is located
    • includes a single circular chromosome
  15. Plasmids
    • prokaryotes
    • small circular DNA molecules
  16. Extracellular Structures (in prokaryotes)
    • Capsule
    • -for protection
    • -gelatinous polysaccharide
    • Pili
    • -adherence
  17. Extracellular Structures - Motile
    • Flagella
    • -some bacteria
    • -many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) and some plants and animals
    • Cilia
    • -many unicellular protists and some plants and animals
    • -Large number per cell
  18. Cell Wall
    • Most cells (proks and euks) except animals
    • For rigidity (cell shape) and protection from mechanical damage
    • Made of polysaccharides and proteins
    • -cellulose in plants
    • -chitin in fungi
    • -peptidoglycan in bacteria
  19. Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
    • Characteristic of animal cells
    • ECM = glycoproteins secreted by cells
    • -collagen
    • - other proteoglycans
    • Integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane link the ECM to the cell's internal cytoskeleton
  20. Information processing in nucleus
    • matter processing
    • synthesis
    • export
    • recycling
  21. Compartmentalization in Eukaryotic cells
    • Segregation
    • Concentration
  22. Nuclear Region in Eukaryotes
    location of most genetic material
  23. Nucleus
    • Organelle containing the chromosomes
    • the site of ribosome production
    • location of most genetic material
    • Surrounded by nuclear envelope
    • Contains filaments that maintain its shape and organization
    • floats in nucleoplasm
  24. Nuclear envelope
    two membranes with pores (nuclear pores)
  25. Matter processing - disposal, degradation
    • cytoplasm
    • lysosomes
    • vacuoles
    • peroxisomes
  26. Lysosome
    • some eukaryotes
    • small digestive organelle
    • contains hydrolytic enzymes to break down macromolecules
    • involved in autophagy (breakdown of cytosolic particles and defective organelles) and phagocytosis (break down of extracellular particles)
  27. Phagocytosis
    lysosome digesting food
  28. Authophagy
    lysosome breaking down damaged organelle
  29. Vacuole
    • some eukaryotes esp. plants
    • organelle with diverse functions ... including ion storage, water regulation, and degradation
    • similar to lysosome

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