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What was Machiavelli's critique of classical tradition?
it did not take into account human character; lowers standards, chance of success increased to provide effctive political science guidance (happiness is material goods); virtue is in the needs of society rather than those of the mind.
What are Locke's ideals? What do you need to make a good society?
Using private vice to procure public benefits; need only enlightment (to understand what is in their own interests) and positive law. Moral virtues complicates things (Mandeville's Bees)
What are Rousseau's ideals?
He was the first modern critique of modernity; saw intellectual progress as a threat to moral progress (which is the only true progress).
What were questions not asked in Machiavelli?
What is the best regime and what is the best way to live.
What is utilitarian?
greatest good for the greatest amount of people.
What is Machiavelli's veiw on wisdom and reason? How does it differ from the views of the ancients?
wisdom is instrumental and reason is to help you gain power; reason is instrumentalized. For the ancients, need spoudias to know what the excellence life looks like. Whereas the end in M is power; end for A is seeking truth: the erotic desire to know.
How does Leviathan portray God (taken from where) and what is it's purpose?
God is like a sea-monster (Job). It is the political set up that has absolute power.
What does Hobbes reject? Why?
Republic and Grace. Doesn't think humans have capacity to govern themselves (no republic); problem of grace: we are all the same, how can we say who is most righteous before God? Grace fails to deal with violence he sees first hand. Neither nature nor grace can unite human beings.
What is the end for Aristotle? What is his idea of political philosophy?
Developing habits of virtue to shape citizens to be virtuous. Political philsophy is the highest science (rooted in prudential wisdom). True statesman is upright and knows how to juedge and make laws to let men become excellence.
What does Hobbes aims to do? Who influenced him?
True political science (first legitimate, exact and objective science; deals with facts not up for debate). Influenced by Euclid (geometry); defines what is most basic and builds upon it; starts from a point, then a line and plane. Also newton and his laws of motion; "forces acting upon bodies; human beings are bodies and bodes that are acted upon"
What are Hobbe's first definitions and what does he think of human nature?
first principles are not up for debate; definitions build upon itself. Humans are bodies in motion; mecahnics associated with machines; we are machines in motion; we are passive machines, objects acted upon
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