Microbio exam 1

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Microbio exam 1
2012-01-31 00:36:47
Microbio exam

Microbio exam 1
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  1. Viruses are...
    Chemical toxins and not cellular.
  2. Microbes

    Small organisms that are usually one celled and are studied with a microscope.
  3. Pathology
    study of disease and organisms causing disease.
  4. Leeuwenhoek
    mircoorganism was first seen by the human eye because of the work of Leeumenhoek.

    discovered bacteria, algae, protozoans and fungi.
  5. Louis Pasteur
    • He really begin the study of Microorganisms in the 19th century.
    • came up with the Germ theory of disease.
    • -discovered that fermentation is due to yeast
    • -pasteurization (wine and beer)
    • he didn't agree with spontaneous generation.
    • (swan-necked flas experiment)
  6. Spontaneous Generation
    theory: life comes from nowhere

    **Microorganisms do not arise by spontaneious generation in sterile infusions.

    • -J.B van Helmont believer of this.
    • -also , John Needham
  7. Challenger of Spontaneous Generations
    • -Fancisco Redi, first to challenge.
    • (maggots do not arise spontaneously from rotting meant, but instead arise from eggs laid by flies)

    -Pasteur (boiled infusions will remain sterile as long there are no airborne.)
  8. The Germ Theory of Disease
    theory: states that microogransims can invade other gorganisms and cause disease and support began to accumlate in early 19th.

    supports: Lister and Pasteur

    • pasteur- specific microbes cause specific disease.
    • lister- developed an antiseptic in surgery to prevent microbes to enter the wound. (dilute phenol)
    study of the bacteria
    the study of viruses
  11. Mycology
    the study of the fungi
  12. Protozoology
    study of the protozoa
    study of the algae
    study of parasites.
  15. Bacteria
    Cell size: .5-5.0 microns (um)


    • normally coccus (circles) or bacillus (rods)
    • some are filaments because they are unattached by undivided walls.

    • lack a nucleus and membrane bound intracellular.
    • Some cause diseases.

    • they are everywhere.
    • Procaryotic-----only bacteria
    • effect: N2 nitrogen fixation
  16. Algae
    • unicellular
    • cell size: few-100 microns

    • do foul water supplies (like sea weed and stuff in pools) which brings us to that they are found in watery area.
    • toxins- Ride Tide turns water red and kills fishes.

    • most of time in colony.
    • eucaryotic.

    • they are autotropic- there is chlorophyll in chloroplast.
    • photosyntheic
    • (primary producer or organic molecules) bottom of the chain. make oxygen.
  17. Fungi
    • single celled (yeast) many (molds)
    • cell wall: chitin
    • absorb nutrients from the environment.
    • decomposers of everything.
    • sources of antibiotics. (penicillin)
    • food: mushroom, cheese, alchol
    • no living organism can break down this sustance.
  18. Koch Disease
    also known as TB.
  19. Robert Koch
    isolated causative agents of antrax, TB and cholera
  20. Protozoan
    • eukaryotic, and unicellular.
    • they are heterotrophic (can't make their own food)
    • location: water, soil and in/on the boies of other life forms.

    • they cause decomposition and pathology?
    • cause malaria- through flies.
  21. Commensalism
    1 benefit and the other is neutral.
  22. Mutualism
    both benefit
  23. Parasitism
    one benefit, the other is harmed.
  24. Viruses
    not all are cellular

    • -they have no independent immune system
    • -all viruses are obligate, intracellular parasites of host's cells.
    • -1/1000 of a micron and are harmful

    • they are everywhere.
    • effects: negative effect.
  25. List all Eurcaryotic
    Algae, Fungi, Protozoan, Viruses
  26. List all Prokaryotic