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2010-04-25 22:54:46

Meiosis and mendelian genetics, Population Genetics, DNA and RNA, and Animal Development
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  1. Many single-celled organisms, cinludeing all prokaryyotes, reproduce by__________-or the splitting of a cell in two.
    binary fission
  2. Some single celled and simple multi-celled eukaryotes reproduce asexually by _______. In this process, one or several cells will break off the parent and become a new individual.
  3. Any of the alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable pheotypic effects.
  4. The generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of the entire organism into two or more parts.) In most cases, the offspring are genetically idential to the parent.
    Asexual reproduction
  5. A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome
  6. A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. To make one or more genetic replicas of an indvidual or cell.
  7. The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
    crossing over
  8. A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
    diploid cell
  9. A descrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  10. A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
    haploid cell
  11. A pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes of the same characters at corresponding loci. One_______ chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
    homologous chromosomes
  12. The first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosomes sets as the orginal cell.
    Meiosis I
  13. The second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
    Meiosis II
  14. The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
  15. Examples of asexual reproduction in plants are; ____, ______, and _____ (runners).
    bulbs, rhizomes, and stolons (runners)
  16. 3 differences between meiosis and mitosis
    • In Meiosis,
    • 1. Cells pass through each phase twice and cytokinesis twice (Meiosis I and II) so the end result is for cells.
    • 2. DNA replication only happnes once, but cells divide twice, so the resulting cells are haploid.
    • 3. During prophase I, the processes of synapsis and crossing over occur.
  17. When the two sets of sister chromatids from one homologous pair of chromosomes get bound together and intertwine.
  18. Right after synapsis, where chromosome pieces are swapped between chromatids thereby increasing genetic variability.
    crossing over
  19. The end result of meiosis is _____, known as ______ (eggs and sperm). In plants, the cells are known as _____.
    four haploid cells, gametes , spores.
  20. The speicific process of sperm formation is called
  21. A major difference from males to females in terms of the production of functional gametes during meoisis is;
    cytokinesis is uneven, so that one large and three small cells are produced in females. The large one is the ovum (egg) and the other three are the polar bodies. Males produce 4 even haploid sperms 4(n)
  22. the specific process of ovum formation in females is called
  23. The ______ develops inot the the new individual by repeated mitosis and cytokinesis.
  24. The study of inheritance
  25. DNA molecules with protein, which determine cell/organism structure and function
  26. Sections of DNA that code for synthesis of enzymes that regulate cell reactions to determine character
  27. a specific cell activiy or appearance
  28. expressed variations of specific character are
  29. the genetic variations that produce traits are called
    alleles (one allele per trait)
  30. The major patterns of genetic inheritance include:
    complete inheritance (mendelian genetics), incomplete inheritance, co-dominance inheritance
  31. two or more genes work together to produce a specific outcom
    polygenic inheritance
  32. Mendel found what 4 things?
    • 1. There are alternative forms of genes (alleles) for each trait
    • 2. for each inherited trait a diploid organism receives two genes (one from each parent)
    • 3. a gamete (sperm or egg) carries only one allele because homologous chromosomes separate dring meiosis (law of segregation)
    • 4. for those traits inherited by complete dominance, one allele of the pair is usually expressed (dominate) while the other is not (recessive).
  33. alleles that are the same; a genotype
  34. alleles that are different; a genotype
  35. physical expression of a genotype---a character has variable traits
  36. genetic- A gene for a character has variable alleles for the traits
  37. character is to_____ as gene is to____.
    character is to trait as gene is to allele
  38. If an individual that is homozygous dominant for a gene mates with an individual that is homozygous recessive, that is a __________.
    monohybrid cross--All of the offspring will be heterozygous all expressing dominate trait.
  39. A ________ involves parents that are homozygous (one parent dominate, one parent recessive) for two different genes.
    Dyhybrid cross
  40. "if the genes are located on different chromosomes, the inheritance of one will no affect the inheritance of the other" is called
    Law of Independent Assortment
  41. Reductional division occurs in
    meiosis I
  42. equatorial division occurs
    during meiosis II
  43. the study of the changes in genotype and allele frequencies that occur in natural populations
    population genetics
  44. a group of individuals of the same species, co-occurring in a specific location at a specific time
  45. a group of individuals that share common characteristics and that which, under natural conditions, can interbreed and produce fertile offsrping
  46. For any one species, the sum of genetic variability for that species is referred to as its
    gene pool
  47. the frequencies of the dominant allele and recessive allele (and therefore, the frequencies of the genotypes) remained unchanged generation after generation is known as it's;
  48. a mathematical principle that states that allelic and genotypic frequencies in a population remain constant unless acted upon by forces other than genetic recombinations and the law of segregation
    Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium theory
  49. In order to be in equilibrium, the following assumptions must be met:
    • 1. Large population size
    • 2. Panmixis
    • 3. No Natural selection
    • 4. No migration
    • 5. No mutation
    • 6. No genetic drift
  50. individuals in a population do not select their mates...mate at random
  51. refers to the effects of an environment on a species; species adapt in order to respond to these changes. Where nature selects the adaptations that allow survival.
    natural selection
  52. any alteration of teh nucleotide sequence in a gene.
  53. refers to random changes in allele frequencies that may result from processes such as founder effect or bottleneck effect
    genetic drift
  54. refers to the reproductive isolation of some protion of an existing population
    founder effect
  55. results from a catastrophic decline in the population size that may be caused by an unusual abiotic factor like a hurricane or tornado that kills most of the population
    bottleneck effect
  56. what is formed by crossing over and occurs in prophase I
  57. centrioles duplicate and begin to move to opposite poles
    G2 phase of interphase
  58. At interphase the ________cell number is_______
    diploid 2n
  59. BLANK contains one 5 carbon sugar (pentose), one phosphate functional group an one nitrogen containing ring molecule called a BLANK
    nucleotide and nitrogenous base
  60. DNA contains the pentose sugar called BLANK, while RNA contains BLANK
    deoxyribose and ribose
  61. The phosphate functional group is attched at the BLANK
    5' carbon
  62. DNA contains the nitrogenous bases ?, ?, ?, and ?
    Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine
  63. RNA contains the nitrogenous bases ?,?,?, and ?
    A, G, C, and Uracil
  64. The two bases A and G are formed as double ringed molecules and are collectively known as ?
    Purines (pure as gold)
  65. The three bases C, T, and U are all single ringed nitrogenous bases called
  66. Any nitrogenous base in either DNA or RNA attaches at the ? position of the pentose
    1' position
  67. The process where DNA is exactly duplicated during S phase of interphase is called ?
    DNA synthesis
  68. Three key characteristics that faciliate the replication or repair of a DNA molecule
    Complementary Base Pairing- (A to T and G to C)> Chargaff's Rule

    Anti-parallel arrangement of strands- (3' and 5' ends ALIGNED in opposite directions

    Semi-conservative nature of synthesis- unzipping or breaking of the H bonds at the base pairs in order to replicate DNA molecule
  69. ??? occurs at multiple locations simultaneously and works in both directions along the strands by the actions of ???
    • DNA replication
    • DNA polymerase
  70. DNA polymerase can only move alone a strand of DNA from the ?? towards the ?? end of the nucleotide. It arranges the complementary nucleotides in the new strand in a ?? to ?? alignment.
    • 3-5
    • 5-3
  71. Since replication occurs in BOTH directions, when the strand separate, they form an opening called a
    replication bubble
  72. A series of replication bubbles open all along the DNA at postions called
    initiation sites
  73. At each end of a replication bubble is a
    replication fork
  74. The portions of the strands that are aligned 3'->5' AWAY from the initiation site and TOWARDS the replication forks
    Leading strand (continuous synthesis)
  75. The portions of the strands that are aligned 3->5' TOWARDS the initiation site and AWAY from the replication fork creating a gap is
    Lagging strand (discontinuous)
  76. Daughter DNA molecule contains one ?? and one ??
    old and new strand
  77. Highly coiled strands of RNA fond in ribosomes. Function as the site in a ribosome where polypeptides are assembled ie protein synthesis.
    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  78. Found in free molecules in the cytoplasm. Function to bring amino acids to the ribosome and transfer them to the ribosome to be added to the polypeptide (protein) being synthesized.
    Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  79. created in the nucleus (eukaryotes) or cytoplasm (prokaryotes) as a copy of a gene. It is a single strand of RNA whose length varies according to the size of the gene that is copied.
    Messenger (mRNA)
  80. The process of mRNA formation as one copy of one gene from a DNA molecule is called
  81. A special enzyme that copies one gene from one strand (the sense strand) of DNA from 3' to 5' (makes new single strand by adding complementary nucleotides in an antiparallel strand)
    RNA polymerase
  82. When RNA polymerase reads T on DNA, it brings in ?, when it reads C, it brings ?, when it reads G, it brings ?, but when it reads A, it brings ? instead of ?
    A, G, C, U instead of T
  83. When the RNA polymerase gets to the ? region, it lets the new mRNA go. The mRNA then moves to a ribosome to begin the process of ?
    • terminator region
    • translation
  84. The process of converting the information in the mRNA which is formed by specific base sequences, into a polypeptide chain or protein. Also known as protein sythesis. Occurs at ribosomes either within the nucleus or at the rough endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes.
    Translation (protein synthesis)
  85. The information in the bases is read as base triplets called ??, there are 64 of these, three of which are known as nonsense of stop ? because they are found at the end of the mRNA and signal the end to building the specified protein. The other 61 specify a specific amino acid.
  86. one specific codon , ??, not only signals for a specific amino acid called methionone, it also signifies the start of progein synthesis, thus it is always the FIRST codon on mRNA
  87. codons are read at the ribosome by rRNA at a location called the
  88. The corrrect amino acid is brought to the ribosome by tRNA which has an exposed three base sequence called an
    anticodon (must match codon for amino acid to be kept)
  89. The amino acids at the ? and ? sites are joined by a ? bond.
    • A and P
    • peptide bond
  90. DNA colors
    deoxyribose sugar
  91. Orange
  92. Yellow
  93. Red
    phosphate functional group
  94. Green
  95. Blue
  96. Pink
    RNA ribose Sugar
  97. Purple
  98. The sections that are joined by DNA ligase
    Okazaki fragments (created from lagging strand)
  99. Uracil has ? strands and has ?? molecular forms
    1 strand, 3 molecular forms
  100. thymine (pyrimdine) has ?? strands, ?? molecular forms
    2, 1
  101. Development in animals consists of 4 major phases:
    • 1. Fertilization
    • 2. Cleavage
    • 3. Gastrulation
    • 4. Organogenesis
  102. Penetration of the sperm into ovum and fusion of haploid (n) gamete nuclei to form a single elled diploid (2n) zygote is called
  103. Cleavage progresses through the following stages...
    zygote>2 cell stage>4 cell stage>8 cell stage>Morula>Blastula
  104. The morula is a solid ball of ??? blastomeres
  105. The blastula contains between ?? and ???? blastomeres (individual cells in the stages of cleavage) and forms a hollow ball, with the hollow center called ??? filled with liquid
    • 64-2000
    • blastocoel
  106. The rate and location of cleaveage within an embryo varies depending on the concentration and distribution of ??, the food source for the developing embryo.
  107. very little yolk present is called
  108. moderate amount of yolk
  109. large amount of yolk
    macro lecithal
  110. yolk evenly distributed in egg/embryo
    isolecithal (usually associated with micro)
  111. Iso egg = seastar
    moderate telolecithal=
    highly teloliceithal=
    • frog
    • chick
  112. entire embryo undergoes cleaveage is called
  113. blastomeres in the vegetal pole are larger and fewer in number they're called
  114. blastomeres in animal pole are smaller and more numerous
  115. Rapids series of mitosis and cyto kinesis resulting in increasing number of progressively smaller cells such that the overall embryo (multi cellular unborn animal) size is unchanged.
  116. the phase also known as differentation, where the embryo now begins to change size and shape. Dividing blastomeres now push inward forming a hole on the surface of the embryo (the blastopore)
  117. tube inside embryo, which is the begning of the digestive system and is called
  118. germ layers
    • ectoderm--outer: nervous system and skin
    • mesoderm--middle: muscle, internal skeleton
    • endoderm--inner layer, which forms linings of all tubes in the body
  119. phase where organs develop
  120. the formation of the central nervous system, which only occurs in the phylym chordata
  121. a hollow tube that eventually fills in with nerve cels, becoming the spinal cord
    neural canal