BCH Ch7 Glycobiology

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bkheath
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131382
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BCH Ch7 Glycobiology
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2012-01-30 00:53:22
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BCH Ch7 Glycobiology
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BCH Ch7 Glycobiology
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  1. Compound containing a carb componenet bound covalently to a protein or lipid, forming a glycoprotein or glycolipid
    Glycoconjugate
  2. Simple sugar which consists of a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit
    Monosaccaride
  3. Six carbon sugar D-glucose aka
    dextrose
  4. Carbs which consist of short chains of monosacc units, or residues, joined by glycosidic bonds
    Oligosaccarides
  5. Sucrose =
    D-glucose + D-fructose
  6. Carbs with >20 monosacc units & may be linear or branched
    Polysaccarides
  7. Monosacc w/aldehyde at end of C chain
    aldose
  8. Monosacc w/ketone
    Ketose
  9. Two sugars that differ only in the config around one C atrom
    Epimers
  10. Isomeric forms of monosaccs that differ only in their config abt the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon atom
    Anomers
  11. Hemiacetal (or carbonyl) carbon atom is called the ___
    anomeric carbon
  12. Process in which the alpha and beta anomers of D-glucose interconvert in aqueous solution
    Mutarotation
  13. Glucose & other sugars capable of reducing ferric or cupric ion are called ___
    reducing sugars
  14. Maltose, lactose, sucrose are all ___
    disaccharides
  15. Covalent bond that is formed b/w 2 monosaccs (in a disacc) when a hydroxyl group of one sugar reacts w/the anomeric carbon of the other (ie the hemiacetal chiral carbon), forming an acetal upon joining (fig 7-11)
    O-glycosidic bond
  16. The end of a disacc or polysacc with a free anomeric carbon (one not involved in a glycosidic bond) is called the ___
    reducing end
  17. polysaccarides aka
    glycans
  18. Polysacc which contains only a single type of monomer
    Homopolysaccharide
  19. Polysacc which contains 2 or more types of monomers
    Heteropolysaccharides
  20. Starch contains 2 types of glucose polymer:
    amylose & amylopectin
  21. Amylose vs Amylopectin vs Glycogen
    • Amylose: long, unbranched chains of glucose
    • Amylopectin: highly branched chains of glucose
    • Glycogen: more highly branched & compact
  22. Bacterial & yeast polysaccs, such as those formed by bacteria on teeth surface
    Dextrans (in this ex, in the form of dental plaque)
  23. Heteropolysaccs that are a family of linear polymers composed of repeating disacc units
    Glycosaminoglycans
  24. Homopolysaccs
    Stored fuel:
    Structural support:

    (type & structure)
    • Stored fuel: starch & glycogen (helical stuctures w/intrachain H bonding)
    • Structural support: cellulose, chitin, dextran, peptidoglycan (long, straight strands interact w/neighboring strands)
  25. Macromolecules of cell surface or extracellular matrix in which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are joined covalently to a membrane protein or a secreted protein
    Proteoglycans
  26. Found on outer face of plasma membrane, in the extracellular matrix, and in blood. Have one or several oligosaccarides of varying complexity joined covalently to a protein.
    Glycoproteins
  27. Membrane lipids in which the hydrophilic head groups are oligosaccharides which act as specific sites for recognition by carb-binding proteins
    Glycolipids
  28. Enormous supramolecular assemblies of many core proteins all bound to a single molecule of hyaluronate
    Proteoglycan aggregates
  29. Family of plasma mem proteins that mediate signaling b/w the cell interior and the extracellular matrix and that also have binding sites for a number of other extracellular macromolecs
    Integrins
  30. Same protein produced in two types of tissues has diff glycosylation patterns (ie has diff set of oligosacc chains) & which represents a tissue-specific marker
    Tissue glycoforms
  31. Mem lipids of euk cells in which the polar head group (facing towards the outer surface of mem) is a complex oligosacc containing sialic acid & other monosacc residues
    Gangliosides
  32. Carbs on the surface of the outer mem of gram-neg bacteria (E.coli & Salmonella) which are targeted by antibodies in immune system
    Lipopolysaccarides
  33. Glycoconjugates in which a core protein is attached covalently to one or more large glycans, such as heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, or keratan sulfate. Provide points of adhesion, recognition, & info transfer b/w cells, or b/w the cell & the extracellular matrix
    Proteoglycans
  34. Proteins that bind carbs w/high affinity and specificity & serve in a wide variety of cell-cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion processes & in intracellular targeting of newly synthesized proteins
    Lectins
  35. Family of plasma mem lectins that mediate cell-cell recognition and adhesion in a wide range of cellular process, such as mvmt of immune cells from capillaries to tissues
    Selectins

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