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What was Machiavelli's critique of classical tradition?
it did not take into account human character; lowers standards, chance of success increased to provide effctive political science guidance (happiness is material goods); virtue is in the needs of society rather than those of the mind.
What are Locke's ideals? What do you need to make a good society?
Using private vice to procure public benefits; need only enlightment (to understand what is in their own interests) and positive law. Moral virtues complicates things (Mandeville's Bees)
What are Rousseau's ideals?
He was the first modern critique of modernity; saw intellectual progress as a threat to moral progress (which is the only true progress).
What were questions not asked in Machiavelli?
What is the best regime and what is the best way to live.
What is utilitarian?
greatest good for the greatest amount of people.
What is Machiavelli's view on wisdom and reason? How does it differ from the views of the ancients?
wisdom is instrumental and reason is to help you gain power; reason is instrumentalized. For the ancients, need spoudias to know what the excellence life looks like. Whereas the end in M is power; end for A is seeking truth: the erotic desire to know.
How does Leviathan portray God (taken from where) and what is it's purpose?
God is like a sea-monster (Job). It is the political set up that has absolute power. Church says it has capacity for salvation, thus power over monarchs. Who really has absolute power and could triumph the king is king moves not in direction of salvation of souls? Leviathan solves that.
What does Hobbes reject? Why?
Republic and Grace. Doesn't think humans have capacity to govern themselves (no republic); problem of grace: we are all the same, how can we say who is most righteous before God? Grace fails to deal with violence he sees first hand. Neither nature nor grace can unite human beings.
What is the end for Aristotle? What is his idea of political philosophy?
Developing habits of virtue to shape citizens to be virtuous. Political philsophy is the highest science (rooted in prudential wisdom). True statesman is upright and knows how to judge and make laws to let men become excellence
What does Hobbes aims to do? Who influenced him?
True political science (first legitimate, exact and objective science; deals with facts not up for debate) to solve problems of human nature. Influenced by Euclid (geometry); defines what is most basic and builds upon it; starts from a point, then a line and plane. Also newton and his laws of motion; "forces acting upon bodies; human beings are bodies and bodes that are acted upon"
What are Hobbes' first definitions and what does he think of human nature?
first principles are not up for debate; definitions build upon itself. Humans are bodies in motion; mechanics associated with machines; we are machines in motion; we are passive machines, objects acted upon
What does Hobbes say about sense and imagination?
Sense is the most basic component; we only act when we are acted upon. Imagination is the image after object leaves, comes from motion, decays over time. Same as memory. Nothing is not in the intellect is in the senses. Helen Keller was defective machine according to Hobbes.
Describe train of thoughts.
Moving from one thought to another. Imagination is the acitivity put in motion from one thought to another. Effects imagined: when we feel cold, we want to know what causes it and how can we use it.
Describe speech and what is prudence for Hobbes.
Prudent: more experiences, to use definitions correctly; capacity to use names to create/ register certain things and how to use them correctly. Transform mental discourse into verbal. Names gives us capacity to order the world. Prudence orders science to each other.
What is reason and science for Hobbes?
Reason is reckoning of consequences (thin way to think about it). Reason used to figure out consequences of activities (tool), ordering human mind to reality outside itself. Reason is like math; add things that are advantageous and subtract disadvantages (what gives you pleasure and pain). More reason through experience; learn how to order things properly. Science is knowledge of consequences.
What is vital and voluntary motion for Hobbes?
Vital is survival reduced to pleasure and appetite. Figure out what is dangerous and pleasurable to life. (survival for Hobbes is ensuring your well-being). Voluntary is speaking and moving; brought about by motions outside; passions are motions. Judge value of objects by the degree in which they move us (pleases us); what will induce pleasure and appetite.
What is virtue and end for Hobbes?
Virtue is having good wit; being able to quickly move from thought to thought. Happiness is being materially well off (felicity), what gives you pleasure; no such things as highest good (we're machines); we are perpetually hungry for power and restless (end is when we are dead). Manner us used to allow people to live together in peace; the glue that glues us together when we can't agree on political issues, allows us to carry things forward. Reduced everything to mere logic.
What is passion?
Passion comes upon by force outside ourselves. It is the objects of our desire.
Did Hobbes have a telos?
No. Telos is the possiblity of choosing what is really good in union with the truth, good and holy. Telos is the natural goal of who we are, realized by being virtuous, faithful and sociable (realize the fullness of who we are, living in communities to help us realize our end). We are oriented towards this telos, but not for Hobbes (very shallow end).
What's the difference in practical wisdom for the Ancients and Hobbes?
Practical wisdom for the ancients is the capacity to figure out mean between excess and deficiency to choose rightly, whereas for Hobbes, it is a mere calculating instrument to figure out what just and unjust will get you (consequences). Bottom line utility.
What is natural condition for Hobbes? How does Leviathan differ from the Ancients in preaching?
Natural condition is the state of nature: WAR (war of all against all). Without civil society, this is what human nature will look like. H proceeds to talk about commonwealth after natural condition to explain why we need it, why we ended up here (civil society is not natural). Ancients begin with experience in political life already.
What is the right of nature?
Right of self-preservation: right of everything that is correlated to that, to do whatever we want to preserve our lives, including right to another's body.
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