Chapter 5

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dphill20
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131431
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Chapter 5
Updated:
2012-02-03 13:44:36
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Body Whole
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Medical Terminology
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  1. Organization of the Body

    6 level of organization of the body
    Chemicals->Cells->Tissues->Organs->Body Systems->Organism
  2. Organization of the Body

    The cell
    is the fundamental unit of life.
  3. Organization of the Body

    The four main types of tissue and thier functions are
    • epithelial (covering)
    • connective (supporting and protecting)
    • muscular (contracting)
    • nervous (conducting impulses)
  4. Organiztion of the Body

    Homeostasis
    refers to the constant internal environment that is naturally maintained by the body.
  5. Major Body Systems

    Muscular System
    Makes movement possible
  6. Major Body System

    Skeletal System
    Provides protection, form, and shape for the body; stores minerals and forms some blood cells
  7. Major Body Systems

    Cardiovascular System
    Delivers oxygen, nutrients, and vital substances throughout the body; transports cellular waste products to the lungs and kidneys for excretion
  8. Major Body Systems

    Lymphatic System
    Helps maintain the internal fluid environment; produces some types of blood cells; regulated immunity
  9. Major Body Systems

    Respiratory System
    Brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide and some water waste
  10. Major Body Systems

    Digestive System
    Provides the body with water, nutrients, and minerals; removes solid wastes
  11. Major Body Systems

    Urinary System
    Filters blood to remove wastes of cellular metabolism; maintains the electrolyte and fluid balance
  12. Major Body Systems

    Reproductive System
    Facilitates proreation (producing offspring)
  13. Major Body Systems

    Integumentary System
    Provides external covering for protection; regulates the body temperature and water content
  14. Major Body Systems

    Nervous System
    Coordinates the reception of stimuli; transmits messages to stimulate movement
  15. Major Body Systems

    Endocrine System
    Secretes hormones and helps regulate body activities
  16. Organization of the Body

    Anatomical Position
    Standing erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward.
  17. Organization of the Body

    Frontal Plane (coronal plane)
    divides the body into front and back portions
  18. Organization of the Body

    Transverse Plane
    divides the body into upper and lower portions; it may be drawn at any level
  19. Organization of the Body

    Sagittal Plane
    divides the body into right and left sides, and a midsagittal plane divides the body into two equal halves
  20. Directional Terms

    anter/o

    anterior
    nearer to or toward the front; ventral
  21. Directional Terms

    poster/o

    posterios
    nearer to or toward the back; dorsal; situated behind
  22. Directional Terms

    ventr/o

    ventral
    belly side; same as anterior surface in humans
  23. Directional Terms

    dors/o

    dorsal
    directed toward or situated on the back side; same as posterior surface in humans
  24. Directional Terms

    medi/o

    medial, median
    middle or nearer the middle; the prefeix mid- also means middle
  25. Directional Terms

    later/o

    lateral
    toward the side; denoting a position farther from the midline of the body or from a structure
  26. Directional Terms

    super/o

    superior
    uppermost or above
  27. Directional Terms

    infer/o

    inferior
    lowermost or below
  28. Directional Terms

    proxim/o

    proximal
    nearer the origin or point of attachment
  29. Directional Terms

    dist/o

    distal
    far or distant from the origin or point of attachment
  30. Directional Terms

    cephal/o

    cephalad
    toward the head
  31. Directional Terms

    caud/o

    caudad
    toward the tail or in an inferior direction in humans
  32. Organization of the Body

    Prone
    lying facedown
  33. Organization of the Body

    Supine
    lying on the back
  34. Body Cavities

    The two principal cavities are
    the dorsal cavity, located near the posterior part of the body, and the ventral cavity, located near the anterior part.
  35. Body Cavities

    Dorsal Cavity
    is divided into the cranial and spinal cavities.
  36. Body Cavities

    Ventral Cavity
    is subdivided into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.

    *Large organs contained in the ventral cavity are called viscera.
  37. Body Cavities

    Peritoneum
    A membrane called the peritoneum lines the aabdominopelvic cavity and enfolds the internal organs.
  38. Body Cavities

    Adhesion
    A sticking together of two structures that are normally separated.

    *Abdominal adhesions are usually caused by inflammation or trauma and are treated surgically if they cause intestinal obstruction or excessive discomfort.
  39. Body Regions

    The major regions of teh body are
    • Head
    • Neck
    • Torso
    • Extremeties
  40. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    abdomin/o
    abdomen
  41. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    acr/o
    extremities
  42. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    blephar/o
    eyelid
  43. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    cyst/o
    cyst, bladder, or sac
  44. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    dactyl/o
    digit (toes, fingers, or both)
  45. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    lapar/o
    abdominal wall
  46. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    omphal/o
    umbilicus (navel)
  47. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    onych/o
    nail
  48. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    pelv/i
    pelvis
  49. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    periton/o
    peritoneum
  50. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    som/a, somat/o
    body
  51. Combining Forms for Select Body Regions or Structures

    thorac/o
    chest (thorax)
  52. Body Regions

    Abdominocentesis, usually called abdominal paracentesis
    is a surgical procedure that is performed to remove excess fluids from the abdominal cavity or to inject a therapeutic agent.
  53. Body Regions

    Ascites
    Abdnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
  54. Body Regions

    Peritonitits
    can result if infectious microorganisms gain access by way of surgical incisions or by the rupture or perforation of viscera or associated structures.
  55. Body Regions

    Thoracentesis, Thoracocentesis
    Surgical puncture of the chest wall for aspiration of fluids.
  56. Body Regions

    Laparotomy
    Incision of the abdominal wall.
  57. Body Regions

    Laparoscopy
    examination of the interior of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope, an instrument that is inserted into the peritoneal cavity to inspect it.
  58. Body Regions

    Cephalopelvic
    refers to the head of the fetus and the maternal pelvis
  59. Body Regions

    Omphalic, Umbilical
    concerning the umbilicus
  60. Body Regions

    Omphalitis
    an inflamed condition of the navel
  61. Body Regions

    Omphalorrhexis
    rupture of the navel
  62. Body Regions

    Omphalorrhagia
    umbilical hemorrhage
  63. Body Regions

    Omphalocele
    congenital herniation

    *A hernia is protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening in the wall of the cavity that surrounds it.

    *Types of abdominal hernias include umbilical, femoral, incisional, and inguinal.
  64. Body Regions

    Cephalometry
    measurement of the dimensions of the head
  65. Body Regions

    Cephalgia, Cephalodynia
    pain in the head, or headache
  66. Body Regions

    Blepharal
    pertaining to the eyelid
  67. Body Regions

    Blepharoplegia
    paralysis of one or both eyelids
  68. Body Regions

    Blepharospasm
    twitching of the eyelid
  69. Body Regions

    Blepharotomy
    surgical incision of the eyelid
  70. Body Regions

    Blepharoplasty
    plastic surgery of the eyelid
  71. Body Regions

    Acral
    pertaining to the extremities of the body
  72. Body Regions

    Acrodermatitis
    dermatitis of the extremities
  73. Body Regions

    Acrocyanosis
    cyanosis of the extremities, the arms and legs appear bluish
  74. Body Regions

    Acrohypothermy
    abnormal coldness of the extremities
  75. Body Regions

    Acromegaly
    a disorder in which there is abnormal enlargement of the body extremities, including the nose, jaws, fingers, and toes, caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone after maturity
  76. Body Regions

    Dactylography
    the study of fingerprints
  77. Body Regions

    Dactylospasm
    cramping of a finger or toe
  78. Body Regions

    Dactylitis
    inflammation of the bones of the fingers and toes
  79. Body Regions

    Chiropody
    pertainig to the hands and feet

    *Also the art or profession of a chiropodist, a specialist who treats corns, bunions, and other afflictions of the hands and feet.
  80. Body Regions

    Chirospasm
    cramping of the hand, such as writer's cramp
  81. Body Regions

    Chiroplasty
    plastic surgery of the hand
  82. Body Regions

    Onychophagist
    one who habitually bites the nails
  83. Body Regions

    Onychopathy
    any disease of the nails

    *Onychomycosis means a disease of the nails caused by a fungus.
  84. Body Regions

    Onychectomy
    surgical removal of the nail, also declawing of an animal
  85. Body Fluids
    Fluids constitute more than 60% of an adult's weight under normal conditions. Fluid balance is maintained through intake and output of water.
  86. Body Fluids

    Intracellular

    Extracellular
    Body fluids are found either within the cells (intracellular) or outside the cells (extracellular).
  87. Body Fluid

    Interstitial Fluid
    fills the spaces between most of the cells of the body.
  88. Body Fluid

    Edema
    Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial coomparment results in a condition called edema.
  89. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    crin/o, -crine
    secrete
  90. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    dacry/o, lacrim/o
    tear, tearing, crying
  91. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    -emia
    condition of the blood
  92. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    hem/o, hemat/o
    blood
  93. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    hidr/o
    sweat or perspiration
  94. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    hydr/o
    water
  95. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    lymph/o
    lymph
  96. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    muc/o
    mucus
  97. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    -poiesis
    production
  98. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    -poietin
    substance that causes production
  99. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    py/o
    pus
  100. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    sial/o
    saliva
  101. Select Word Parts That Pertain to Body Fluids

    ur/o
    urine
  102. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    coagul/o
    coagulation
  103. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    cyt/o
    cell
  104. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    erythr/o
    red
  105. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    hem/a, hemat/o
    blood
  106. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    leuk/o
    white
  107. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    thromb/o
    clot (thrombus)
  108. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    -cyte
    cell
  109. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    -osis
    generally, "increased" or "abnormal" when describing cellular components
  110. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    -penia
    deficiency
  111. Select Word Parts Pertaining to Blood

    -poiesis
    production
  112. Changes in Numbers of Formed Elements of Blood

    erythrocyte (transports oxygen)
    red blood cell (RBC)
  113. Changes in Numbers of Formed Elements of Blood

    leukocyte (body defense)
    white blood cell (WBC)
  114. Changes in Numbers of Formed Elements of Blood

    thrombocyte (blood clotting)
    platelet (blood platelet)

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