Language of Anatomy

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Language of Anatomy
2012-02-09 15:18:14
Organ System Review

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  1. Anatomical Position
    Universally accepted standard position. The human body is erect with feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
  2. Axial
    Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body
  3. Appendicular
    Relating to limbs and thier attachments to the axis
  4. Abdominal
    Pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
  5. Acromial
    Pertaining to the point of the shoulder
  6. Antebrachial
    Pertaining to the forearm
  7. Antecubital
    Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
  8. Axillary
    Pertaining to the armpit
  9. Brachial
    Pertaining to the arm
  10. Buccal
    Pertaining to the cheek
  11. Carpal
    Pertaining to the wrist
  12. Cervical
    Pertaining to the neck region
  13. Coxal
    Pertaining to the hip
  14. Crural
    Pertaining to the leg
  15. Digital
    Pertaining to the fingers or toes
  16. Femoral
    Pertaining to the thigh
  17. Fibular (peroneal)
    Pertaining to the side of the leg
  18. Frontal
    Pertaining to the forehead
  19. Hallux
    Pertaining to the great toe
  20. Inguinal
    Pertaining to the groin
  21. Mammary
    Pertaining to the breast
  22. Mental
    Pertaining to the chin
  23. Nasal
    Pertaining to the nose
  24. Oral
    Pertaining to the mouth
  25. Orbital
    Pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)
  26. Palmar
    Pertaining to the palm of the hand
  27. Patellar
    Pertaining to the knee
  28. Pedal
    Pertaining to the foot
  29. Pelvic
    Pertaining to the pelvis region
  30. Pollex
    Pertaining to the thumb
  31. Pubic
    Pertaining to the genital region
  32. Sternal
    Pertaining to the region of the breastbone
  33. Tarsal
    Pertaining to the ankle
  34. Thoracic
    Pertaining to the chest
  35. Umbilical
    Pertaining to the navel
  36. Calcaneal
    Pertaining to the heel of the foot
  37. Chepalic
    Pertaining to the head
  38. Dorsum
    Pertaining to the back
  39. Gluteal
    Pertaining to the buttocks or rump
  40. Lumbar
    Pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
  41. Manus
    Pertaining to the hand
  42. Occipital
    Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
  43. Olecranal
    Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
  44. Otic
    Pertaining to the ear
  45. Perineal
    Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
  46. Plantar
    Pertaining to the sole of the foot
  47. Popliteal
    Pertaining to the back of the knee
  48. Sacral
    Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlaying the sacrum)
  49. Scapular
    Pertaining to the scapula or sholder blade area
  50. Sural
    Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
  51. Vertebal
    Pertaining to the area of the spinal column
  52. Superior
  53. Inferior
  54. Anterior
  55. Posterior
  56. Medial
    Toward the midline
  57. Lateral
    Away from the midline or median plane
  58. Cephalad (cranial)
    Toward the head
  59. Caudal
    Toward the tail
  60. Dorsal
  61. Ventral
    Belly side
  62. Proximal
    Nearer the trunk or attached end
  63. Distal
    Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
  64. Superficial (external)
    Toward or at the body surface
  65. Deep (internal)
    Away from the body surface
  66. Plane
    An imaginary surface or line to section the human body
  67. Sagittal Plane
    A plane that runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and lefts parts.
  68. Median or Midsagittal Plane
    When the body is divided into equal parts right down the median plane
  69. Parasagittal Planes
    All other sagitttal planes not divided into equal parts
  70. Frontal Plane
    (coronal plane)
    The longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts
  71. Transverse Plane
    Runs horizontally dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
  72. Cross Sections
    When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane
  73. Dorsal Body Cavity
    Contains the cranial and vertebral (or spinal) cavity
  74. Cranial Cavity
    In which the brain is enclosed within the rigid skull
  75. Vertebral (spinal) Cavity
    Within which the delicate spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column
  76. Ventral Body Cavity
    Contains the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
  77. Thoracic Cavity
    Seperated by the rest of the ventral cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm. Contains the heart and lungs protected by the bony rib cage
  78. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    Inferior to the diaphragm. Combines the abdominal and pelvic cavity
  79. Abdominal Cavity
    Houses the stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs
  80. Pelvic Cavity
    Partially enclosed by the bony pelvis and contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
  81. Serous Membrane
    An exceedingly thin, double layered membrane that covers the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains.

    These membranes produce thin lubricating fluid that allows the visceral organs to slide over one another or to rub up against the body wall without friction. Serous membranes are compartmentalized so that infection of one organ is prevented from spreading to others.
  82. Parietal Serosa
    The part of the membrane lining the cavity walls
  83. Visceral Serosa
    Covering the external surface of the organs within the ventral cavity
  84. Peritoneum
    The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs
  85. Pleura
    The serosa lining that encloses the lungs
  86. Pericardium
    The serosa lining that encloses the heart
  87. Quadrants
    The four equal regions the abdominopelvic cavity is divided into RUQ,LUQ,RLQ,LLQ
  88. Umbilical Region
    The centermost region, which includes the imbulicus
  89. Epigastric Region
    Immediately superior to the umbilical region; overlies most of the stomach
  90. Hypogastric (pubic) Region
    Immediately inferior to the umbilical region; encompasses the pubic area
  91. Iliac (inguinal) REgions
    Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones
  92. Lumbar Regions
    Between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones; lateral to the umbilical region
  93. Hypochondriac Regions
    Flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs
  94. Oral Cavity
    The mouth, containing the tongue and teeth. It is continuous with the rest of the digestive tube, which opens to the exterior at the anus.
  95. Nasal Cavity
    Located within and posterior to the nose; is part of the passages of the respiratory system.
  96. Orbital Cavities
    Located in the skull and house the eyes, presenting them in an anterior position.
  97. Middle Ear Cavities
    Lies just medial to an eardrum and is carved into the bony skull. Contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ears.
  98. Synovial Cavities
    Are joint cavities that are enclosed with fibrous capsules that surround the freely moveable joints of the body, such as the vertebrae, knee, and hip joints. They secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction as the enclosed structures move across one another.
  99. Epithelial Membranes
    Composite membranes with epithelial and connective tissue elements
  100. Cutaneous Membrane
    Covers and protects the body surface
  101. Mucous Membrane
    Line body cavities (hollow organs) that open to the exterior
  102. Thymus
    An irregular mass of glandular tissue overlying the heart
  103. Heart
    Medial oval structure enclosed within the pericardium
  104. Lungs
    Flanking the heart of either side
  105. Trachea
    Tubelike "windpipe" running medially down the throat; part of the respiratory system dividing into two branches called bronchi
  106. Bronchi
    Two passageways that plunge laterally into the tissue of the two lungs
  107. Esophagus
    A food chute; the part of the digestive system that transports food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach
  108. Diaphragm
    A thin muscle attached to the inferior boundary of the rib cage; separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  109. Stomach
    A curved organ important in food digestion and temporary food storage
  110. Greater Omentum
    An extension of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal viscera
  111. Small Intestine
    Connected to the stomach and ending just before the saclike cecum
  112. Large Intestine
    A large muscular tube connected to the small intestine and ending at the anus
  113. Cecum
    The initial portion of the large intestine
  114. Rectum
    Terminal part of the large intestine; continuous with the anal canal
  115. Anus
    The opening of the digestive tract (through the anal canal) to the exterior
  116. Mesentery
    An apronlike serous membrane; suspends many of the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity. Invested with blood vessels and large fat deposits.
  117. Pancreas
    A diffuse gland; rests dorsal to and in the mesentery between the first portion of the small intestine and the stomach.
  118. Spleen
    A dark red organ curving around the left lateral side of the stomach. Considered part of the lymphatic system and often called the red blood cell graveyard.
  119. Liver
    Large and brownish red; the most superior organ in the abdominal cavity, directly beneath the diaphragm
  120. Kidneys
    Bean-shaped organs; retroperitoneal (behind the peritoneum
  121. Adrenal Glands
    Large endocrine glands that sit astride the superior margin of each kidney
  122. Ureter
    Tube running from the indented region of the kidney to the urinary bladder
  123. Urinary Bladder
    The sac that serves as the reservoir for urine
  124. Inferior Vena Cava
    The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the lower regions of the body
  125. Descending Aorta
    Deep into the inferior vena cava; the largest artery of the body; carries blood away from the heart down the midline of the body
  126. Scrotum
    Sac that holds the male's testis
  127. Ductus Deferens
    (vas deferens)
    Carries sperm from the testis superiorly into the abdominal cavity and joins the urethra. The urethra runs through the penis and carries both urine and sperm out of the body.
  128. Uterus
    The Y-shaped cavity lying against the dorsal wall and beneath the bladder
  129. Ovary
    A small oval structure at the end of the uterine tube