Chapter 1 Politics Vocabulary

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Chapter 1 Politics Vocabulary
2012-01-29 17:14:02
American Government Politics Keeping Republic

Keeping the Republic Chapter 1 Vocabulary
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  1. politics
    who gets what, when, and how; a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourse to violence
  2. power
    the ability to get other people to do what you want
  3. social order
    the way we organize and live our collective lives
  4. legitimate
    accepted as"right" or proper
  5. government
    a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people
  6. authority
    power that is recognized as legitimate
  7. institutions
    organizations in which governmental power is exercised
  8. economics
    production and distribution of a society's material resources and services
  9. capitalist economy
    an economic system in which the market determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is privately owned
  10. laissez-faire capitalism
    an economic system in which the market makes all decisions and the government plays no role
  11. regulated capitalism
    a market system in which the government intervenes to protect rights and make procedural guarantees
  12. procedural guarantees
    government assurance that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promise of particular outcomes
  13. socialist economy
    an economic system in which the state determines production, distribution, and price decisions, and property is government owned
  14. substantive guarantees
    government assurance of particular outcomes or results
  15. social democracy
    a hybrid system of combining a capitalist economy and a government that supports equality
  16. authoritarian governments
    systems in which the state holds all power over social order
  17. totalitarian
    a system in which absolute power is exercised over every aspect
  18. authoritarian capitalism
    a system in which the state allows people economic freedom but maintains stringent social regulations to limit noneconomic behavior
  19. anarchy
    the absence of government (extreme), when a community decides to break away, create their own rules, and enforce them as a community. Ex) Amish
  20. democracy
    government that vests power in the people
  21. popular sovereignty
    the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power
  22. elite democracy
    a theory of democracy that limits the citizens' role to choosing among competing leaders
  23. pluralist democracy
    a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
  24. participatory democracy
    a theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives
  25. advanced industrial democracy
    a system in which a democratic government allows citizens a considerate amount of personal freedom and maintains a free-market (though still usually regulated) economy
  26. communist democracy
    a utopian system in which property is communally owned and all decisions are made democratically
  27. subjects
    individuals who are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights
  28. citizens
    members of a political community with both rights and responsibilities
  29. divine right of kings
    the principle that earthly rulers receive their authority from God
  30. Protestant Reformation
    the break from the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s by those who believed in direct access to God and salvation by faith
  31. Enlightenment
    a philosophical movement (1600s-1700s) that emphasized human reason, scientific examination, and industrial progress
  32. social contract
    the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
  33. republic
    a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the people