CHAPTER 12

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CHAPTER 12
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2010-04-06 13:02:21
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CHAPTER 12
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CHAPTER 12
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  1. 1. Cardiac output is the blood ******** delivered by the ******* to the ******* per minute. It is a ********* determinant of oxygen delivery to the tissues.
    • QUANTITY
    • HEART
    • AORTA
    • MAJOR
  2. 1. A fall in cardiac output may results in:
    A.
    B.
    C.
    D.
    E.
    • LOW BP
    • REDUCED TISSUE OXYGENATION
    • ACIDOSIS
    • POOR RENAL FUNCTION
    • SHOCK
  3. 1. The direct method of estimating the cardiac output consists of measuring the **********stroke volume by the use of an flow probe placed on the **********.
    • ELECTROMAGNETIC
    • AORTA
  4. 1. Another well known method for measuring cardiac output is the ********* Method.
    FICK'S
  5. 1. The most popular method group is the one applying the principle of ********* . The method employs several different types of ***********.
    • INDICATOR DILUTION
    • INDICATORS
  6. 1. Two methods are generally employed for introducing the indicator into the bloodstream: it may be injected at a ******** rate, or as a ********* .
    • CONSTANT
    • BOLUS
  7. 1. In the bolus method, a small but known quantity of an indicator such as a ******* or *************** in administered into the circulation, injected into a large *********** or preferably into the *********** heart itself.
    • DYE
    • RADIOISOTOPE
    • VEIN
    • RIGHT
  8. 1. The presence of an indicator in the peripheral artery is detected by a ************** transducer and is displayed on a chart recorder. This way we get the ************ output curve, which is called the ********** curve.
    • SUITABLE (PHOTOELECTRIC)
    • CARDIAC
    • DILUTION
  9. 1. During the first *********** period the indicator would mix up with the blood and will dilute ********* . When passing before the transducer, it would reveal a big and rapid
    • CIRCULATION
    • JUST A BIT
  10. 1. The circulation system being a closed one, (only) a fraction of the injected indicator would once again pass through the ******** and enter (again) the arterial circulation.
    HEART
  11. 1. The most commonly used substance is a *****, and the preferred is *************** (CARDIOGREEN), because it absorbs light in the *******nm region.
    • DYE
    • INDOCYANINE GREEN
    • 800
  12. 1. The concentration of cardiogreen can be measured with the help of an ********** photocell transducer.
    INFRA-RED
  13. 1. The procedure consists of injecting the dye into the ******** atrium by means of a ******** catheter.
    • RIGHT
    • VENOUS
  14. 1. A motor-driven ******* constantly draws blood from the ******** or ********* artery through a cuvette.
    • SYRINGE
    • RADIAL
    • FEMORAL
  15. 1. The (dilution) curve is traced by a recorder attached to the ********** .
    DENSITOMETER
  16. 1. After the curve is drawn, an injection of ********* is given to flush out the dye from the ********** blood.
    • SALINE
    • CIRCULATING
  17. 1. In the densitometer an interference filter with a peak transmission of ***nm is used to permit only ******** radiation to be transmitted.
    • 805
    • INFRARED
  18. 1. A flow rate of *** ml/min is preferred.
    40

  19. 1. A ********** is used to transport the blood containing ******* from the sampling site, inside the ************* system, to the densitometer located ********* the body.
    • CATHETER
    • DYE
    • CARDIOVASCULAR
    • OUTSIDE
  20. 1. Sampling from the catheter densitometer ******** concentration time curve.
    DISTORTS THE
  21. 1. To reduce distortion, computer software-based ********** have been devised.
    CORRECTIONS
  22. 1. A thermal indicator of known volume is introduced into either the ******* or ***** atrium will produce a resultant ********* change, the integral of which is ******** proportional to the cardiac output.
    • RIGHT
    • LEFT
    • TEMPERATURE
    • INVERSELY
  23. 1. A multi-lumen thermistor catheter, known as the ********** triple lumen balloon catheter can be used in thermal dilution.
    SWAN-GANZ
  24. 1. In thermal dilution, the electronic computation is relatively simple because there is no significant ********* of the indicator in humans.
    RECIRCULATION
  25. 1. The system calibration is based upon the use of an injection of *** ml of 5% dextrose solution at a temperature in the range of ******** degrees C.
    • 10
    • 18-28
  26. 1. Blood temperature is measured over a range of ******** degrees C with an accuracy of + 0.2 degrees C.
    30-40
  27. 1. The thermodilution curve can be measured on an *********** machine.
    ELECTROCADIOGRAPH
  28. 1. Compared to thermistors excited by a current below the effective heating range, ********* are two orders of magnitude less sensitive than thermistors.
    THERMOCOUPLES
  29. 1. As blood flow is ********, injection can be done in ******* of the heart cycle.
    • PULSATILE
    • ANY PART
  30. 1. In addition, a dilution curve obtained in the ******** artery will look ******** if injection was done in diastole or systole of the heart.
    • PULMONARY
    • DIFFERENT
  31. 1. An electrosurgery unit emits radio frequency energy that can ******** or ******* the thermo-dilution temperature curve.
    • DISTRUPT
    • SCRAMBLE
  32. 1. Thermo-dilution measurements can be repeatedly ***** frequently than the other methods.
    MORE
  33. 1. Another method (1976) is based on the analysis of the ******** pressure wave, and estimates the ******** ventricular stroke ******* from the pulse contour.
    • AORTIC
    • LEFT
    • VOLUME
  34. 1. All that is required is ******* pressure measurement at any site in the ******* .
    • ONE
    • AORTA

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