Medical Terminology Ch 15

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Medical Terminology Ch 15
2012-01-29 20:33:49
Musculoskeletal System

Language of Medicine Chapter 15 Musculoskeletal System
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  1. Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint.
  2. Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.
  3. Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space.
    articular cartilage
  4. Dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. Examples are long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula), and sesamoid bones (patella).
  5. One of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones.
  6. Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.
    cancellous bone
  7. Flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces.
  8. Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues.
  9. Hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones.
    compact bone
  10. Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.
  11. Skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, phenoid, and temporal.
    cranial bones
  12. ethmoid bone
    skull bone
  13. frontal bone
    skull bone
  14. occipital bone
    skull bone
  15. parietal bone
    skull bone
  16. temporal bone
    skull bone
  17. Shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
  18. Flat, round, plate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.
    disk (disc)
  19. Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton.
    epiphyseal plate
  20. Each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate.
  21. Bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic.
    facial bones
  22. Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones.
  23. Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant.
  24. Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. The foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
  25. Shallow cavity in a bone.
  26. Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone.
    haversian canals
  27. Round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia.
  28. Upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle.
  29. Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear.
    mastoid process
  30. Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone.
    medullary cavity
  31. Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta- means between).
  32. Large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow.
  33. Bone tissue.
    osseous tissue
  34. Process of bone formation.
  35. Bone cell that helps form bony tissue.
  36. Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue.
  37. Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue.
  38. Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium.
  39. Area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined (sym- = together, -physis = to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk.
    pubic symphysis
  40. Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.
    red bone marrow
  41. Twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8 to 10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12.
  42. Depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located.
    sella turcica
  43. Hollow air cavity within a bone.
  44. Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.
    styloid process
  45. Immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium).
  46. Connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw.
    temporomandibular joint
  47. Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone.
  48. Large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature.
  49. Rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons.
  50. Individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal.
  51. Lower, narrow portion of the sternum.
    xiphoid process
  52. Fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones.
    yellow bone marrow
  53. acetabulus
    hip socket
  54. calcaneus
  55. carpals
    wrist bones
  56. clavicle
    collar bone
  57. coccyx
  58. cranium
  59. femur
    thigh bone
  60. fibula
    smaller of the two lower leg bones
  61. humerus
    upper arm bone
  62. ilium
    upper part of the pelvic bone
  63. ischium
    posterior part of the pelvic bone
  64. malleolus
  65. mandible
    lower jaw bone
  66. maxilla
    upper jaw bone
  67. metacarpals
    hand bones
  68. metatarsals
    midfoot bones
  69. olecranon
  70. pantella
    knee cap
  71. phalanges
    finger and toe bones
  72. pubis
    anterior part of the pelvic bone
  73. radius
    forearm bone - thumb side
  74. scapula
    shoulder blade
  75. sternum
  76. tarsals
    hindfoot bones
  77. tibia
    shin bone - larger of the two lower leg bones
  78. ulna
    forearm bone - little finger side
  79. vertebra
  80. calc/o
  81. kyph/o
    humpback, hunchback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)
  82. lamin/o
    lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
  83. lord/o
    curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
  84. lumb/o
    loins, lower back
  85. myel/o
    bone marrow
  86. orth/o
  87. oste/o
  88. scoli/o
    crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
  89. spondyl/o
    (used to make words about conditions of the structure)
  90. vertebr/o
    (used to describe the structure itself)
  91. -blast
    embryonic or immature cell
  92. -clast
    to break
  93. -listhesis
  94. -malacia
  95. -physis
    to grow
  96. -porosis
    pore, passage
  97. -tome
    instrument to cut
  98. acetabul/o
    acetabulum (hip socket)
  99. calcane/o
    calcaneus (heel)
  100. carp/o
    carpals (wrist bones)
  101. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone)
  102. cost/o
    ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs)
  103. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  104. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  105. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
  106. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  107. ili/o
    ilium (upper part of the pelvic bone)
  108. ischi/o
    ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone)
  109. malleol/o
    malleolus (process on each side of the ankle)
  110. mandibul/o
    mandible (lower jawbone)
  111. maxill/o
    maxilla (upper jawbone)
  112. metacarp/o
    metacarpals (hand bones)
  113. metatars/o
    metatarsals (foot bones)
  114. olecran/o
    olecranon (elbow)
  115. patell/o
    patella (kneecap)
  116. pelv/i
    pelvis (hipbone)
  117. perone/o
  118. phalang/o
    phalanges (finger and/or toe bones)
  119. pub/o
    pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
  120. radi/o
    radius (forearm bone - thumb side)
  121. scapul/o
    scapula (shoulder blade)
  122. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  123. tars/o
    tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
  124. tibi/o
    tibia (shin bone)
  125. uln/o
    ulna (forearm bone - little finger side)
  126. Ewing sarcoma
    Rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occuring in children.
  127. exostosis
    Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone.
  128. -ostosis
    condition of bone
  129. fracture
    Traumatic breaking of a bone.
  130. osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma)
    Common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts.
  131. osteomalacia
    Softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone.
  132. osteomyelitis
    Inflammatino of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection.
  133. osteoporosis
    Decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone.
  134. talipes
    Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus).
  135. talipes equinovarus
  136. Smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint.
    articular cartilage
  137. Any type of joint.
  138. Sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another.
    bursa (plural: bursae)
  139. Connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint.
  140. Immovable joint, such as between the bones of the skull.
    suture joint
  141. Space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.
    synovial cavity
  142. Viscous (sticky) fluid with the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn = like, ov/o = egg).
    synovial fluid
  143. A freely moveable joint.
    synovial joint
  144. Tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid.
    synovial membrane
  145. Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
  146. ankyl/o
  147. arthr/o
  148. articul/o
  149. burs/o
  150. chondr/o
  151. ligament/o
  152. rheumat/o
    watery flow
  153. synov/o
    synovial membrane
  154. ten/o
  155. tendin/o
  156. -desis
    to bind, tie together
  157. -stenosis
  158. Inflammation of the joints.
  159. Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine.
    ankylosing spondylitis
  160. Inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
    gouty arthritis (gout)
  161. Progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces.
    osteoarthritis (OA)
  162. Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly by the synovial membrane.
    rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  163. pyrexia
  164. Enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).
  165. Compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist (carpal tunnel).
    carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
  166. Displacement of a bone from its joint.
  167. Fluid-filled cyst arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand.
  168. Abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal or spinal nerves.
    herniation of an intervertebral disk (disc).
  169. laminectomy
    Surgical removal of a portion of the vertebral arch.
  170. Disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick.
    Lyme disease (Lyme arthritis)
  171. Trauma to a joint without rupture.
  172. Injury involving the overstretching of muscle.
  173. Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system (CNS), heart and lungs.
    systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  174. Decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb.
  175. Increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb.
  176. Movement away from the midline of the body
  177. Movement toward the midline of the body.
  178. Circular movement around an axis (central point). Internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline.
  179. Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward). This is the opposite movement of stepping on the gas pedal when driving a car.
  180. Motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes or stepping on the gas pedal.
    plantar flexion
  181. As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. As applied to the foot, it is outward roll of the foot during normal motion.
  182. As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm down. As applied to the foot, it is inward roll of the foot during normal motion.
  183. Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles.
  184. Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves.
    insertion of a muscle
  185. Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone.
    origin of a muscle
  186. Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or striated muscle.
    skeletal muscle
  187. Visceral muscle
    smooth muscle
  188. Striated muscle
    skeletal muscle
  189. Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
    visceral muscle
  190. fasci/o
    fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
  191. fibr/o
    fibrous connective tissue
  192. leiomy/o
    smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
  193. my/o
  194. myocardi/o
    heart muscle
  195. myos/o
  196. plant/o
    sole of the foot
  197. rhabdomy/o
    skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
  198. sarc/o
    muscle and flesh
  199. -asthenia
    lack of strength
  200. -trophy
    • development
    • nourishment
  201. ab-
    away from
  202. ad-
  203. dorsi-
  204. poly-
    • many
    • much
  205. Group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system.
    muscular dystrophy
  206. Chronic inflammatory myopathy
  207. Lab Tests
    Detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    antinuclear antibody test (ANA)
  208. Lab Tests
    Measures time it takes for erythrocytes to settle to the bottom of a test tube.
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  209. Lab Tests
    Serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    rheumatoid factor test (RF)
  210. Lab Tests
    Measurement of calcium level in serum.
    serum calcium
  211. Lab Tests
    Measurement of the enzyme creatine kinase in serum.
    serum creatine kinase (CK)
  212. Lab Tests
    Measurement of uric acid in serum.
    uric acid test
  213. Clinical Procedures
    Surgical procedure to remove fluid from the joint space.
  214. Clinical Procedures
    Taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into a joint.
  215. Clinical Procedures
    Surgical repair or replacement of a joint.
  216. Clinical Procedures
    Visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope and television camera.
  217. Clinical Procedures
    Low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass.
    bone density test (bone densitometry)
  218. Clinical Procedures
    Uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone.
    bone scan
  219. Clinical Procedures
    X-ray beam and computer provide cross-sectional and other images.
    computed tomography (CT)
  220. Clinical Procedures
    X-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk).
  221. Clinical Procedures
    Recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
    electromyography (EMG)
  222. Clinical Procedures
    A magnetic field creates images of soft tissue.
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  223. Clinical Procedures
    Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
    muscle biopsy
  224. ROM
    range of motion
  225. DO
    doctor of osteopathy
  226. TKR
    total knee replacement
  227. THR
    total hip replacement