Medical Terminology Ch 15
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Medical Terminology Ch 15
Language of Medicine Chapter 15 Musculoskeletal System
Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint.
Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle.
Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space.
Dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. Examples are long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula), and sesamoid bones (patella).
One of the mineral constituents of bone.
is the major calcium salt in bones.
Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.
Flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces.
Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues.
Hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones.
Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.
Skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, phenoid, and temporal.
Shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
Flat, round, plate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.
Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton.
Each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate.
Bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic.
Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones.
Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant.
Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. The
is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
Shallow cavity in a bone.
Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone.
Round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia.
Upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle.
Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear.
Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone.
Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta- means between).
Large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow.
Process of bone formation.
Bone cell that helps form bony tissue.
Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue.
Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue.
Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium.
Area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined (sym- = together, -physis = to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk.
Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.
red bone marrow
Twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8 to 10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12.
Depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located.
Hollow air cavity within a bone.
Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.
Immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium).
Connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw.
Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone.
Large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature.
Rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons.
Individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal.
Lower, narrow portion of the sternum.
Fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones.
yellow bone marrow
smaller of the two lower leg bones
upper arm bone
upper part of the pelvic bone
posterior part of the pelvic bone
lower jaw bone
upper jaw bone
finger and toe bones
anterior part of the pelvic bone
forearm bone - thumb side
shin bone - larger of the two lower leg bones
forearm bone - little finger side
humpback, hunchback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
loins, lower back
crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
(used to make words about conditions of the structure)
(used to describe the structure itself)
embryonic or immature cell
instrument to cut
acetabulum (hip socket)
carpals (wrist bones)
clavicle (collar bone)
ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs)
femur (thigh bone)
fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
humerus (upper arm bone)
ilium (upper part of the pelvic bone)
ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone)
malleolus (process on each side of the ankle)
mandible (lower jawbone)
maxilla (upper jawbone)
metacarpals (hand bones)
metatarsals (foot bones)
phalanges (finger and/or toe bones)
pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
radius (forearm bone - thumb side)
scapula (shoulder blade)
tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
tibia (shin bone)
ulna (forearm bone - little finger side)
Rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occuring in children.
Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone.
condition of bone
Traumatic breaking of a bone.
osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma)
Common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts.
Softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone.
Inflammatino of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection.
Decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone.
Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus).
Smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint.
Any type of joint.
Sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another.
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint.
Immovable joint, such as between the bones of the skull.
Space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.
Viscous (sticky) fluid with the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn = like, ov/o = egg).
A freely moveable joint.
Tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid.
Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
to bind, tie together
Inflammation of the joints.
Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine.
Inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
gouty arthritis (gout)
Progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces.
Chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly by the synovial membrane.
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).
Compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist (carpal tunnel).
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Displacement of a bone from its joint.
Fluid-filled cyst arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand.
Abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal or spinal nerves.
herniation of an intervertebral disk (disc).
Surgical removal of a portion of the vertebral arch.
Disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick.
Lyme disease (Lyme arthritis)
Trauma to a joint without rupture.
Injury involving the overstretching of muscle.
Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system (CNS), heart and lungs.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb.
Increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb.
Movement away from the midline of the body
Movement toward the midline of the body.
Circular movement around an axis (central point). Internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline.
Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward). This is the opposite movement of stepping on the gas pedal when driving a car.
Motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes or stepping on the gas pedal.
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. As applied to the foot, it is outward roll of the foot during normal motion.
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm down. As applied to the foot, it is inward roll of the foot during normal motion.
Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles.
Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves.
insertion of a muscle
Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone.
origin of a muscle
Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or striated muscle.
Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
fibrous connective tissue
smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
sole of the foot
skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
muscle and flesh
lack of strength
Group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system.
Chronic inflammatory myopathy
Detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
antinuclear antibody test (ANA)
Measures time it takes for erythrocytes to settle to the bottom of a test tube.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
rheumatoid factor test (RF)
Measurement of calcium level in serum.
Measurement of the enzyme creatine kinase in serum.
serum creatine kinase (CK)
Measurement of uric acid in serum.
uric acid test
Surgical procedure to remove fluid from the joint space.
Taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into a joint.
Surgical repair or replacement of a joint.
Visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope and television camera.
Low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass.
bone density test (bone densitometry)
Uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone.
X-ray beam and computer provide cross-sectional and other images.
computed tomography (CT)
X-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk).
Recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
A magnetic field creates images of soft tissue.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
range of motion
doctor of osteopathy
total knee replacement
total hip replacement