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What is pathology?
the study of structural alterations in cells, tissues and organs which help to identify the cause of disease
What is pathogenesis?
the pattern of tissue changes associated with the development of a disease
What is etiology?
the study of the cause of disease and/or injury
What does idiopathic mean?
disease has no identifiable cause
What does iatrogenic mean?
disease and/or injury as a result of medical intervention
What does nosocomial mean?
a disease is acquired as a result of being in a hospital environment
What is remission?
a period when clinical manifestations disappear or diminish significantly
What is exacerbation?
a period when clinical manifestations become worse or more severe (relapse)
What is sequela(e)?
any abnormal condition that follows and is the result of a disease, treatment or injury
ex: change in HR after a bleed
What structure is mostly RNA, most of the cellular DNA, DNA-binding proteins, and histones?
What binds to DNA for folding into chromosomes?
What are RNA-protein complexes and sites of protein synthesis?
What is responsible for protein synthesis, and contains ribophorins that are docking molecules for ribosomes on the ER?
What contains enzymes for steroid hormone synthesis and for removing toxins from the cell?
What packages proteins fro the ER into secretory vesicles?
What is clathrin?
a protein that coats vesicles
What structures bud from the Golgi complex on the outward secretory pathway?
What structures originate from the Golgi and contain more than 40 hydrolases for intracellular digestion?
When do the enzymes in lysosomes become active?
when the pH is lowered (more H+ ions are pumped in)
What is the difference between a primary lysosome and a secondary lysosome?
- primary= in holding pattern (inactive)
- secondary= when primary fuses with a vacuole or other organelle, the pH drops and the enzymes are activated
What are structures similar to lysosomes, but larger, oval and/or irregular in shape?
How do lysosomes and peroxisomes differ?
- peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes like catalase and urate oxidase
- peroxisomes may be able to kill bacteria that lysosomes cannot by making superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, or hydroxyl ions
What structures are found in many vertebrate species, are most abundant in macrophages and epithelial cells, and are found on leading lamellapodia and at adhesion plaques, as well as on ends of actin filaments?
What structure has 4 components: 3 protein and 1 RNA and is the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein known?
What structures have been proposed to be a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) known as the central plug or NPC transporter?
What is the gelatinous, semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm that functions in intermediary metabolism, ribosomal protein synthesis, and storage of excess nutrients like glycogen?
What is the proposed hypothesis for the role of vault's in disease?
may play a role in cancer cells' resistance to drug therapy
increase in cell size
increase in cell #
reversible replacement of one mature cell type with a less mature cell type
- deranged cell growth
- not adaptation
what are the different types of adaptation in cells?
- kind of dysplasia but not really
What is the normal range of sodium in the body?
What is the normal range of chloride in the body?
What is the normal range of calcium in the body?
What is the normal range of potassium in the body?
What is normal blood pH?
What is the typical carbon dioxide content in the blood (arteries)?
35-45 mm Hg
What is the typical oxygen content in the blood (arteries)?
75-100 mm Hg
What is the normal amount of bicarbonate in the blood?
Does plasma contain clotting factors?
Does serum contain clotting factors?
Which portion of fluids in our body constitutes 2/3?
Which portion of fluids in our body constitutes 1/3?
What are the 4 main components of the ECF?
- interstitial fluid (between cells)
- intravascular (blood plasma)
- trans-cellular (sweat, urine, CSF, intraocular, pancreatic, biliary, intestinal, hepatic, plural, synovial)
What % of our body is water?
What provides a fixed source of osmotic force/pressure in our bodies?
Which ion is responsible for osmotic balance of the ECF?
Which ion is responsible for the osmotic balance of the ICF?
What are the forces that favor filtration?
capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial oncotic pressure
What are the forces the oppose filtration?
plasma oncotic pressure and interstitial hydrostatic pressure
Which has a higher net filtration pressure-- arteriole or venous capillaries?
What happens when filtration > reabsorption?
What are the 4 most common causes of edema?
- increased hydrostatic pressure
- lymph obstruction
- decreased plasma oncotic pressure
- increased capillary permeability
What are some causes of increased hydrostatic pressure (that would lead to edema)?
- congestive heart failure
- renal failure
- prolonged standing
- salt and water retention
What are some causes of decreased oncotic plasma pressure (that would lead to edema)?
- liver disease
- protein malnutrition
- (all lead to decrease in proteins in plasma)
What are some causes of increased capillary permeability (that would lead to edema)?
- injury or trauma
- cancerous growths
- allergic reactions
which ion makes up the majority of ECF?
which ion makes up the majority of ICF?
How do we regulate water balance?
How do we regualate salt (sodium) balance?
- aldosterone (from adrenal cortex)-acts on kidneys
- -------renin, angiotensin, aldosterone
What hormone causes a decrease in BP and a decrease in circulating blood if osmolality goes up(excess plasma sodium) or there is a loss of water?
What triggers the release of renin?
- decreased blood pressure or volume
- or decreased perfusion of renal vessels
What is the major net effect of renin?
increase blood pressure
What is an example of an ectoenzyme that is in the RAA system?
- Ang I is converted in the lung
Where is renin stored and released?
in the juxtaglomerular complex in the afferent arterioles (kidney)
What does Ang II do?
- stimulates aldosterone release from adrenal cortex
- growth factor in heart and blood vessels
- stimulates sodium reabsorption in the kidney so that it can go back into the blood
- stimulates Na/K ATPase pump in basolateral membrane
- stimulates Na/H exchange in luminal membrane
What factors stimulate renin release?
- sodium depletion
- cardiac failure
- upright position
When is ANP released?
when the BP increases or the ECF increases
What hormone inhibits ADH?
How does ANP lower BP and increase sodium excretion?
- increases capillary permeability
- increasing GFR
If the ECF is hypertonic,what happens to RBCs?
If the ECF is hypotonic, what happens to RBCs?
What are the S&S of isotonic loss?
- contraction of ECF volume
- weight loss
- decreased urine
- dry skin/mm
- increased HR
- decreased BP
- postural hypotension
- flat neck veins
What are the S&S of isotonic gain?
- weight gain
- increased BP
- decreased hematocrit b/c of dilution
- decreased plasma proteins b/c of dilution
- extended neck veins
- pulmonary edema
- heart failure
What can cause isotonic gain?
- cortisone (drugs)
- excessive IV fluids
- excessive aldosterone (retain water and salt)
If hypertonia is caused by excess sodium in ECF, what are the symptoms?
If hypertonia is caused by a decrease in ECF free water, what are the symptoms?
What lab value would indicate hypernatremia?
Do high amounts of dietary sodium usually cause hypernatremia?
What are some causes of hypernatremia?
- not enough water intake
- primary hyperaldosteronism (oversecret of aldost)
- Cushing's b/c oversecrete ACTH which stims aldosterone
- excessive saline IV
- respiratory infections
What are the S&S of hypernatremia?
- dry mm
- low jug BP
What are the S&S of hyperchloremia?
there are none
What two things is hyperchloremia usually associated with?
- deficit of bicarbonate in metabolic acidosis
How do you treat dehydration?
What are the 2 most common causes of hypotonic alterations?
- excess water intake (intoxication)
What can insulin be used to treat? (acid base balance disease)
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