the study of structural alterations in cells, tissues and organs which help to identify the cause of disease
What is pathogenesis?
the pattern of tissue changes associated with the development of a disease
What is etiology?
the study of the cause of disease and/or injury
What does idiopathic mean?
disease has no identifiable cause
What does iatrogenic mean?
disease and/or injury as a result of medical intervention
What does nosocomial mean?
a disease is acquired as a result of being in a hospital environment
What is remission?
a period when clinical manifestations disappear or diminish significantly
What is exacerbation?
a period when clinical manifestations become worse or more severe (relapse)
What is sequela(e)?
any abnormal condition that follows and is the result of a disease, treatment or injury
ex: change in HR after a bleed
What structure is mostly RNA, most of the cellular DNA, DNA-binding proteins, and histones?
What binds to DNA for folding into chromosomes?
What are RNA-protein complexes and sites of protein synthesis?
What is responsible for protein synthesis, and contains ribophorins that are docking molecules for ribosomes on the ER?
What contains enzymes for steroid hormone synthesis and for removing toxins from the cell?
What packages proteins fro the ER into secretory vesicles?
What is clathrin?
a protein that coats vesicles
What structures bud from the Golgi complex on the outward secretory pathway?
What structures originate from the Golgi and contain more than 40 hydrolases for intracellular digestion?
When do the enzymes in lysosomes become active?
when the pH is lowered (more H+ ions are pumped in)
What is the difference between a primary lysosome and a secondary lysosome?
primary= in holding pattern (inactive)
secondary= when primary fuses with a vacuole or other organelle, the pH drops and the enzymes are activated
What are structures similar to lysosomes, but larger, oval and/or irregular in shape?
How do lysosomes and peroxisomes differ?
peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes like catalase and urate oxidase
peroxisomes may be able to kill bacteria that lysosomes cannot by making superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, or hydroxyl ions
What structures are found in many vertebrate species, are most abundant in macrophages and epithelial cells, and are found on leading lamellapodia and at adhesion plaques, as well as on ends of actin filaments?
What structure has 4 components: 3 protein and 1 RNA and is the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein known?
What structures have been proposed to be a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) known as the central plug or NPC transporter?
What is the gelatinous, semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm that functions in intermediary metabolism, ribosomal protein synthesis, and storage of excess nutrients like glycogen?
What is the proposed hypothesis for the role of vault's in disease?
may play a role in cancer cells' resistance to drug therapy
increase in cell size
increase in cell #
reversible replacement of one mature cell type with a less mature cell type
deranged cell growth
what are the different types of adaptation in cells?
kind of dysplasia but not really
What is the normal range of sodium in the body?
What is the normal range of chloride in the body?
What is the normal range of calcium in the body?
What is the normal range of potassium in the body?
What is normal blood pH?
What is the typical carbon dioxide content in the blood (arteries)?
35-45 mm Hg
What is the typical oxygen content in the blood (arteries)?
75-100 mm Hg
What is the normal amount of bicarbonate in the blood?
Does plasma contain clotting factors?
Does serum contain clotting factors?
Which portion of fluids in our body constitutes 2/3?
Which portion of fluids in our body constitutes 1/3?