Card Set Information
For exam 1
What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
Gas exchange, host defense, metabolic organs, transports o2, acquire o2, removes co2
attached to outer surgace of the lung
lines the inside of the thoracic cavity, aheres to chest wall and diaphragm
region in the middle of the chest
what are the four functions of respiration
diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
regulation of ventilation
begins with the diaphram. the diaphram flattens and descends
the external intercostal muscles raise the ribs and sternum up and outward. the increase size of the thoracic cavity results in decreased pressure in the pleural cavity.
cardianal signs of respiratory disease
what is the preferred route of air into the lungs
characteristics of COPD
causes irreversile and progressive damage to the lungs which could lead to respiratory failure secondary to severe hypoxia.
FYI in amny patients COPD leads to right sided heart failure secondary to COPD
Most common chronic dease of childhood
characteristics of asthma
airway obstruction that is reversible
increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli
three categories of asthama
signs and symptoms of asthma
tight feeling in chest
agitation as airway obstruction increases
patient unable to talk
respiratory alkalosis because of hyperventilation
hypoventilation leads to increasing hyposemia and respiratory acidosis.
non allergic (intrinsic) asthma
precipitated by excercise, and exposure to pulmonary irritants, but no specific allergen can be id'ed, aspirin
allergic extrinsic asthma
response to specific antigens. causes a release of inflammatory chemicals in response to antigen.
what is chronic bronchitis
acute inflammation of the trachea and bronchi
characteristics of indiv with bronchitis
living in an urban or industrial area
heavy exposure to inhaled irritants.
in some cases asthma is associated
(90% of case is due to cigarette smoking)
what occurs in chronic bronchitis
inflammation and obstruction, repeated infections, chronic cough
hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous glands
increased goblet cells (produces mucin which dissolves in water to form mucus)
decreased ciliated epithelium
during episodes of coughing cyanosis may be seen
(effects irreversible and progressive)
signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis
blue bloater with edema from right side heart failure
chronic cough with sputum for minimum 3 months per year for at least 2 years.
productive or unproductive cough
typical patient overweight man or woman in their 30's or 40's
cyanosis is a late symptom
hypoxia leads to pulmonary hypertension
destructive changes of the alveolar walls without fibrosis (formation of excess gibrin in tissue)
develops over a long period of time. usually associated with chronic bronchitis
usually found in a thin man or woman in his or her middle 50's who has had increaing shortness of breath for the past 3-4 years.
contributing factors to emphysema
cigarrette smoking for the past 70 years.
two ways smoking lead to alveoli damage
it leads to inflammation of the lung
it inactivates anitrypsin which normally protects the lung
main symptoms of emphysema
dypnea on exertion, hyperventilation
sitting position leaning forward
pursed lip breathing
anorexia and fatique
Chronic bronchitis is diagnosed base on what
clinical symtoms -cough with sputum for minimum 3 months in 1 year fo 2 years.
emphysema is diagnosed based on
pathologic anatomy, dilation and destruction of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole the alveolar ducts and laveolar walls.
ct scan is the tool used to diagnosed