Bio Sat2 ch1

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Krudge
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131547
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Bio Sat2 ch1
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2012-02-09 19:41:19
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Bio Sat2 Chapter1
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Molecules of BIology
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  1. Atoms
    • The fundamental units of the
    • physical world.
  2. Molecule
    A Combination of atoms.

    • atom + atom = molecule
    • H + H = H2
  3. Compound
    A molecule which contains different kinds of atoms.

    Reactants---»Product

    H2 + O = H2O

    H2O is a compound because it both contains hydrogen and oxygen.
  4. Element
    A molecule that contains only a single type of atom.

    H2 is an element because is only contains hydrogen.
  5. Reactants
    • The atoms or molecules that
    • interact in a chemical reaction.

    • Reactants---»Product
    • H2 + O = H2O
  6. Products
    The end results of a chemical reaction.

    • Reactants---»Product
    • H2 + O = H2O
  7. Organic
    Molecules that contain carbon.

    Except: CO2 (carbon dioxide) is an inorganic compound
  8. Inorganic
    Molecules that don’t contain carbon.

    (Carbon dioxide is an inorganic compound as well)
  9. Polymers
    String of repeated units.
  10. Monomers
    The individual units of polymers.
  11. Amino acids
    The monomer of a protein.
  12. Amino Group
    NH2 single bonded to the central carbon
  13. Carboxyl Group
    The COOH. Bonded to the central carbon is a carbon molecule, double bonded to that is an O, single bonded is an OH.
  14. Protein
    Amino acids bonded together.
  15. Peptide bond
    The bond that attaches two amino acids.
  16. Dehydration Synthesis
    Forming a bond by removing a water molecule.
  17. Hydrolysis
    A water molecule is added to the structure and the bond is broken.
  18. Polypeptide
    A macromolecule containing many peptide bonds, another word for Protein.
  19. Saccharide
    The monomer for a carbohydrate.
  20. monosaccharides
    • Carbohydrates made of only one saccharide.
    • They have a fixed Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen ratio of 1:2:1
    • The formula for a monosaccharide is CnH2nOn.
  21. Glucose
    • A monosaccharide whose chemical formula is identical to fructose: C6H12O6.
    • The double bonded O is located on the top carbon.
  22. Fructose
    • A monosaccharide whose chemical formula is identical to Glucose: C6H12O6.
    • The double bonded O is located on the second carbon.
  23. Disaccharide
    • Two monosaccharides linked together.
    • Formula is not the same because one H2O is lost during dehydration synthesis.
    • Ex. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11
  24. Maltose
    • Formed from two molecules of glucose.
    • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
    • C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11
  25. Sucrose
    • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
    • C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11
  26. Polysaccharide
    • More than two monosaccharides joined together.
    • Used for storing carbohydrates in organisms.
  27. Glycogen
    The form in which animals store glucose.
  28. Starch
    The form in which plants store glucose.
  29. Cellulose
    • *A structural polysaccharide that forms a plant's cell walls.*
    • It is rigid because of the way that the glucose molecules are linked together.
  30. Hydrocarbon
    • The monomer for a lipid.
    • A carbon atom with two hydrogen atoms bonded to it.
    • They are hydrophobic.
  31. Hydrophobic
    • Doesn't interact with water well.
    • Synonymous with nonpolar.
  32. Nonpolar
    • Doesn't interact with water well.
    • Synonymous with Hydrophobic.
  33. Triglycerides
    • A common lipid.
    • Consists of three fatty acids bonded to one glycerol.
    • Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains.
    • Glycerol is an alcohol with three carbon atoms.
    • Most fats are stored in the body as triglycerides.
  34. Phospholipids
    • Triglycerides with a phosphate group (-PO32- ) replacing one of the fatty acid chains.
    • They align themselves, and sometimes form double layers, like in a cell membrane.
    • The phosphate group is hydrophilic.
  35. Hydrophilic
    • Can interact with water.
    • Synonymous with polar.
  36. Polar
    • Can interact with water.
    • Synonymous with hydrophilic.
  37. Lipid bilayer
    A double layer of phospholipids.
  38. Cholesterol
    • Unique lipid which forms rings, not chains.
    • Found only in animal cells, as membranes.
    • All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol.
  39. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • A polynucleotide containing Phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen bases.
    • The 4 bases for DNA are:
    • Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine.
    • DNA forms a double helix because it is double stranded.
    • Hydrogen bonds connect the two sides by their nitrogen bases.
    • Discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick.
  40. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • A polynucleotide containing Phosphate, sugar and nitrogen bases.
    • The 4 bases for RNA are:
    • Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil.
    • Single-stranded
    • Can form connections within its single strand by bending into many shapes.
  41. Nucleotide
    The monomer of a nucleic acid.
  42. Polynucleotides
    • Containing many nucleotides.
    • ie. nucleic acids
  43. Adenine
    • A nitrogen base.
    • In DNA, pairs with thymine by 2 hydrogen bonds.
    • In RNA, pairs with uracil.
  44. Thymine
    • A nitrogen base.
    • In DNA, pairs with adenine by 2 hydrogen bonds.
    • Not in RNA.
  45. Cytosine
    • A nitrogen base.
    • Always pairs with Guanine by 3 hydrogen bonds.
  46. Guanine
    • A nitrogen base.
    • Always pairs with Cytosine by 3 hydrogen bonds.
  47. Uracil
    • A nitrogen base.
    • Not in DNA.
    • Paired with Adenine in RNA.
  48. Double Helix
    The double spiral of DNA strands.
  49. Base Pariring
    The correct nitrogen base pairs in DNA.
  50. Complementary
    Bases that match up are complementary.
  51. Hydrogen bond
    The bond, in DNA, formed between Nitrogen bases on different strands of the double helix.

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