Eco chapter 2- physical enviroment

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  1. physicla enviroment
    includes climate, chemical, soil
  2. climate
    long-term trends in temperature wind and percipitation
  3. chemical
    salinity, acidity, concentration of gas
  4. soil
    medium of life
  5. weather
    current temp, humidity, percipitation, wind, and cloud cover
  6. climate variation
    • seasonal changes, large-scale changes, gas changes
    • global energy that drives climate is derived from solar radiation
  7. latent heat flux
    heat loss due to evaporation
  8. conduction
    exchange of energy by direct contact
  9. convection
    energy transfer through currents of air and water
  10. sensible heat flux
    energy transfer on Earth by convection and conduction
  11. Greenhouse Gasses
    atmospheric gasses that are radiactively active gasses
  12. uplift
    rise in a pocket of warm air because of the cold air around it
  13. atmospheric pressure
    force exerted on a pocket of air by the air molecules above it, decreases with increase in altitude
  14. troposphere
    atmospheric layer above Earth surface
  15. stratosphere
    layer above troposphere
  16. subsidence
    • air decends down to Earth once reaches similar temp
    • creates regions of high atmospheric pressure and inhibits cloud formation
  17. lapse rate
    lower in temp with increase in height
  18. maritime climate
    • coastal terrestrial regions, little variations in daily/ seasonal temp, higher humidity
    • can occur in all climate zones
  19. continential climate
    • area in middle of large continential land masses has greater variation in temp
    • temperate zones
  20. rain-shadow effect
    • loss of moisture, warming of air as it moves down the leeward slope, influences types and amount of vegatation on mountain range
    • lush on windward
    • sparse, drought resistant on leeward
  21. albedo
    • capacity of a land surface to reflect solar radiation, influenced by presence and type of vegetation, soil, topography
    • light colored surface have highest
  22. evapotranspiration
    • sum of water loss through transpiration and evaporation, increases with the area of leave surface per unit of ground surface area
    • transfers energy and water into atmosphere
  23. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
    zone of maximum solar radiation between the Northern and Southern hemispheres as Earth orbits the sun
  24. Stratification
    • layering of water in oceans and lakes
    • determines the movement of nutrients and oxygen
  25. Epilimnion
    surface layer, warmest cotains most active populations of phyto and zooplakton
  26. thermocline
    • underneath epilimnion
    • zone of rapid temperature decline
  27. hypolimnion
    • layer underneath thermocline
    • densest and coldest water in the lake
  28. Turnover
    • during fall and spring all layers become same temp causeing layers to mix
    • recycle of nutrients that were lost from top layer during summer
    • replenish oxygen supply to bottom
  29. El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO)
    • upwelling of deep water off coast of south america ceases as easternly winds weaken
    • occurs at intervals of 3-8 years
    • associated with unusually dry conditions in Indoneasia, other parts of South American and Australia- increase in fires
    • in southern US and mexico increase in percipitation
  30. La Nina
    • included in ENSO
    • stronger than average phases of normal pattern
    • high pressure of coast of South America and low pressure in western pacific
    • drought conditions to US and mexico- intensify fires
  31. North Atlantic Osciallation
    affect climate variation in Europe, northern Asia, and east coast of North America
  32. Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
    • North Pacific
    • affect climate similar to ENSO and can modify or intensify effects of ENSO
  33. Continential drift
    movement of land masses across the surface of Earth as they float on mantle beneath crust
  34. glacial maxima
    peaks of glacial advancement
  35. interglacial period
    periods of glacial melting and retreat
  36. Milankovitch cycles
    combination of regular changes in shape of Earth's orbit and tilt of axis changed the intensity of solar radiation at high latitudes cause glacial-interglacial cycles
  37. Salinity
    • concentration of dissolved salts in water
    • Salts: ionic compounds composed of anions and cations that disassociate when in water
    • can inhibit metabolic activity if concentrations are too high or low
  38. salinization
    high rates of evapotraspiration result in build up of salts at the surface soil
  39. pH
    • acidity: compounds that give up protons into water when disassociated
    • alkalinity: bases take up protons
    • pH influences terrestrial and fresh water systems, oceans have buffers
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Eco chapter 2- physical enviroment
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