Pharm Week 2

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Pharm Week 2
2012-01-29 23:28:37
Pharm Weeks Pharmacodynamics Side Effects Toxicity

Pharm Weeks 2 Pharmacodynamics, Side Effects, Toxicity
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  1. Pharmacodynamics
    - what the drug does to the body
  2. Agonist
    Agonist - drug that activates a receptor and produces the same type of response as the endogenous substnace

    • - promotes biochemical process - promotes energy expenditure
    • EX- SNS - EPI & NOR - causes heart to contract and pulse goes up

    Is the med designed to cause something to happen or prevent something from happening? (Agonist Vs. Antagonist)
  3. Antagonist
    Antagonist- drug occupys a receptor and prevents the endogenous chemical from binding to produce its aciton

    • - prevents a biochemical process - prevents energy expenditure -
    • EX- PNS - betablockers - block biochemical process
    • Digoxin - proton pump inhibiter - stops the proton pump from working

    Is the med designed to cause something to happen or prevent something from happening? (Agonist vs antagonist)
  4. SE/ ADR
    • Side Effect - drug effect other than therapeutics- predictable and may occur even at therapeutic doses
    • Adverse drug reaction - drug effect that causes morbidity(injury/illness) and/or mortality

    SE/ADR (will see this abbreviation on assessments)
  5. Allergy
    • Allergy: involve immune system - elevated eosinophils, neutrophils, etc
    • Ask client what happens when you take the drug?Things that do not involve the immune system are side effects not allergies (ex hives vs. dirrahea)

    • -severity of allergy symptoms are not proportional to the dose
    • -anphalaxis, hives, broncoconstriction, pruitis, sinus response
  6. Pseudoallergies
    Pseusoallergies - certain drugs have side effects that appear like immune responses - ex morphine makes skin itch
  7. Therapeutic Index
    • ED50 - Effective dose for 50% of population
    • TD50 - Toxic dose for 50% of population
    • Therapeutic Index - TD50 - ED50

    • Wide therapeutic index - hard to OD (overdose) ex. Penicillin
    • Narrow therapeutic index - easy to OD ex. Digoxin

    LD50 - Lethal dose for 50% of population (as tested on animals)
  8. GERD
    • GERD - Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease
    • The integrity of the the LES (also called the cardiac sphinceter) is impaired in the presence of acid
    • Tx = Chronic acid supression
  9. Drug Interactions
    H2 Antagonists
    -class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells

    • H2 Antagonists - suffix tidine - ex cimetidine(Tagamet) (PD) ACh + histamine = parietal cell makes HCl
    • H2 blocker prevents histamine from binding so HCl cannot be released
    • (PD) - prevent acid release
    • dosed 2 - 3 times a day
    • (PK) - Cimetidine is a potent enzyme inhibitor
  10. Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI's) - suffix prazole
    • ex Omeprazole/ Prolosec
    • -dosed 1x/ day-
    • no drug interactions like H2 antagonists but more Expensive so elderly use H2 antagonists (Tagament)
    • (Hydrogen stripped of lone electron is a proton)
  11. Antacids
    PD = metal + base

    • NaHCO3 - Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) -cheap
    • -should be avoided with CV issues

    • CaCo3 -Calcium carbonate (TUMS)
    • -causes acid rebound - calcium is a secondary messenger for the parietal cell - if take too many TUMS then the extra calcium will cause more acid
    • -use as directed - 1-2 may be more effective than 3-4