Biology 100

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ambersmith14322
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131578
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Biology 100
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2012-01-30 00:47:47
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HIERARCHY ELECTRONS MOLECULES
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Chapter 1 & 2 Test Review
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  1. DEFINE BIOLOGY
    STUDY OF LIFE
  2. ALL LIVING THINGS ARE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS
    CELLULAR ORGAINIZATION - ONE OF THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE
  3. ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGY
    METABOLISM - ONE OF THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE
  4. THE TRANSFER OF ENERGY FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER IN CELLS IS CALLED
    METABOLISM
  5. ALL LIVING THINGS MAINTAIN STABLE INTERNAL CONDITIONS
    HOMEOSTASIS - ONE OF THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE
  6. ALL LIVING THINGS GROW AND REPRODUCE
    GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION - ONE OF THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE
  7. ALL ORGANISMS POSSESS A GENETIC SYSTEM THAT IS BASED ON THE DNA MOLECULE
    HEREDITY - ONE OF THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE
  8. TRANSMISSION OF CHARACTERISTICS FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING IS A PROCESS CALLED
    HEREDITY
  9. COMPONENT PARTS OF THE BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (HIERARCHY OF LIFE) THAT ARE NOT LIVING
    ATOMS, MOLECULES, MACROMOLECULES, AND ORGANELLES
  10. SMALLEST PARTICLE IN THE BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (HIERARCHY OF LIFE)
    ATOM
  11. SMALLEST PARTICLE OF MATTER THAT WILL STILL MAINTAIN THE PROPERTIES OF AN ELEMENT
    ATOM
  12. BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER THAT MAKE UP EVERY DAY OBJECTS
    ATOMS
  13. 3 PARTS THAT MAKE UP ATOMS AND CAN DO NOTHING BY THEMSELVES
    PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND ELECTRONS
  14. LIST THE LEVELS OF THE BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (HIERARCHY OF LIFE) IN ORDER
    ATOMS, MOLECULES, MACROMOLECULES, ORGANELLES, CELLS, TISSUE, ORGANS, ORGAN SYSTEMS, ORGANISMS,SPECIES, POPULATION, COMMUNITY, ECOSYSTEM, BIOSPHERE
  15. SMALLEST LIVING LIFE THAT CAN PERFORM ALL ACTIVITIES REQUIRED FOR LIFE, INCLUDE REPRODUCTION
    CELL
  16. GROUP OF CELLS WORKING TOGETHER TO PERFORM A SPECIFIC FUNCTION
    TISSUE
  17. CONTAINS TISSUE, ORGANS, AND AN ORGAN SYSTEM
    ORGANISM
  18. A ____ IS ONE MEMBER OF A SPECIES
    ORGANISM
  19. SINGLE LIVING THING
    SPECIES
  20. SPECIES LIVING TOGETHER IN THE SAME DEFINED AREA
    POPULATION
  21. ALL POPULATIONS IN A DEFINED AREA MAKE UP A
    COMMUNITY
  22. INCLUDES ALL OF THE COMMUNITIES AND THE NON LIVING PARTS
    ECOSYSTEM
  23. ALL ECOSYSTEMS COMBINED
    BIOSPHERE
  24. PROPERTIES THAT WERE NOT PRESENT AT THE SIMPLER LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION. AT EACH LEVEL OF THE HIERARCHY NEW PROPERTIES EVOLVE
    EMERGENT PROPERTIES
  25. BASIC UNIT OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    CELLS
  26. SIMPLE CELLS THAT DO NOT CONTAIN A NUCLEI
    PROKARYOTIC
  27. NAME 2 EXAMPLES OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS
    ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA
  28. WHAT TYPE OF CELLS CONTAIN A NUCLEUS
    EUKARYOTIC
  29. NAME THE FOUR TYPES OF CELLS THAT ARE EUKARYOTIC
    FUNGI, PLANTAE, PROTISTA, AND ANIMALIA
  30. THOSE ORGANISMS WHOSE CHARACTERISTICS MAKE THEM BETTER ABLE TO SURVIVE THE CHALLENGES OF THE ENVIRONMENT LIVE TO REPRODUCE, PASSING THEIR FAVORABLE CHARACTERISTICS OFF TO THEIR OFFSPRING
    NATURAL SELECTION
  31. MECHANISM FOR EVOLUTION
    NATURAL SELECTION
  32. NO TWO INDIVIDUALS IN A POPULATION ARE ALIKE
    INDIVIDUAL VARIATION
  33. THE SELECTION OF ORGANISMS IN ORDER TO DISPLAY THEIR EXAGGERATED CHARACTERISTICS
    ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
  34. LIST THE STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN ORDER
    OBSERVATION, QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS, PREDICTION, TESTING/EXPIRAMENTING, CONTROLS, CONCLUSION
  35. USES DEDUCTIVE REASONING TO TEST IT
    SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  36. USES INDUCTIVE REASONING TO TEST
    DISCOVERY SCIENCE
  37. AN EDUCATED GUESS
    HYPOTHESIS
  38. A COLLECTION OF RELATED HYPOTHESES THAT HAVE BEEN TESTED MANY TIMES AND NOT REJECTED
    SCIENTIFIC THEORY
  39. ENTIRE BOOK OF GENETIC INSTRUCTION THAT AN ORGANISM INHERITS
    GENOME
  40. THE EMERGING BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT STUDIES WHOLE GENOMES
    GENOMICS
  41. THE BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT NAMES AND CLASSIFIES SPECIES
    TAXONOMY
  42. THE KINGDOM AND DOMAIN THAT PEOPLE BELONG TO
    ANIMALLA, EUKARIA
  43. WHAT ARE THE FOUR NUCLEOTIDES IN DNA
    A,T,C,G
  44. GRADUAL MODIFICATION OF POPULATIONS OF LIVING THINGS OVER TIME. SOMETHING THAT IS ESSENTIAL TO BIOLOGY BECAUSE ALL LIFE IS CONNECTED
    EVOLUTION
  45. WHEN HUMANS CHOOSE ORGANISMS WITH SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS AS BREEDING STOCK THEY ARE PERFORMING THE ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT. THIS IS ALSO DONE IN ORDER TO DISPLAY EXAGGERATED CHARACTERISTICS AND KNOWN AS
    ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
  46. RELATED SET OF INSIGHTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE THAT EXPLAINS SOME ASPECT OF NATURE
    THEORY
  47. ANYTHING THAT HAS MASS AND TAKES UP SPACE
    MATTER
  48. SUBSTANCES THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO OTHER SUBSTANCES
    ELEMENT
  49. THREE PHYSICAL STATES ARE
    SOLID, LIQUID AND GAS
  50. SIMPLEST UNIT OF MATTER THAT STILL RETAINS THE PROPERTIES OF AN ELEMENT
    ATOM
  51. AN ATOM THAT HAS A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PROTONS THAN ELECTRONS DUE TO IT EITHER GAINING OR LOSING ELECTRONS, MEANING IT THEREFORE HAS A NET NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE CHARGE
    ION
  52. AN ATOM THAT HAS THE SAME NUMBER OR PROTONS AND ELECTRONS BUT DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
    ISOTOPE
  53. TWO OR MORE ATOMS HELD TOGETHER BY A COVALENT BOND
    MOLECULE
  54. FOUR ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (BULK ELEMENTS) ARE
    OXYGEN (O), HYDROGEN (H), CARBON (C) AND NITROGEN (N)
  55. HOW MANY ELEMENTS ARE ESSENTIAL TO LIFE
    FOUR
  56. ELEMENTS THAT ARE REQUIRED TO SURVIVE BUT ONLY IN MINUTE QUANTITIES
    TRACE ELEMENTS
  57. CONTAINS NO NEUTRONS AND IS THE LIGHTEST OF ALL GASES
    HYDROGEN
  58. HAVE NO WEIGHT (MASS)
    ELECTRONS
  59. WHICH PARTICLE HAS A NEGATIVE CHARGE
    ELECTRON
  60. WHICH PARTICLE HAS A POSITIVE CHARGE
    PROTON
  61. WHICH PARTICLE IS LOCATED ON THE SURROUNDING NUCLEUS
    ELECTRON
  62. WHICH PARTICLES ARE LOCATED ON THE NUCLEUS
    PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
  63. WHICH PARTICLE HAS NO CHARGE
    NEUTRONS
  64. EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
    ATOMIC NUMBER
  65. WHAT TYPE OF ATOM HAS THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS AS IT DOES ELECTRONS
    ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL
  66. NUMBER EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF PROTONS PLUS THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM
    MASS NUMBER
  67. FOUND BY SUBTRACTING THE ATOMIC NUMBER FROM THE MASS NUMBER
    NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
  68. THE SUM OF THE NUMBER OF PROTONS PLUS NEUTRONS IN AN ATOM
    ATOMIC MASS
  69. TWO OR MORE ATOMS HELD TOGETHER BY COVALENT BONDS
    MOLECULE
  70. SUBSTANCES THAT CONTAIN TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS IN A FIXED RATIO
    COMPOUND
  71. MEASURE OF AN ATOMS ABILITY TO ATTRACT ELECTRONS
    ELECTRONEGATIVITY
  72. FORM OF ISOTOPE THAT IS UNSTABLE AND HAS A DECAYING NUCLEUS
    RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE
  73. WHAT TYPE OF BOND SHARES ELECTRONS
    COVALENT
  74. WHAT TYPE OF BOND SHARES ELECTRONS EQUALLY
    NON POLAR COVALENT
  75. WHAT TYPE OF BOND SHARES ELECTRONS UNEQUALLY
    POLAR COVALENT
  76. WHY DO ATOMS BOND
    TO ACHIEVE A MORE STABLE, LOWER ENERGY, ELECTRICAL STATE
  77. BOND THAT FORMS WHEN ONE ATOM TRANSFERS ELECTRONS TO ANOTHER ATOM
    IONIC
  78. BOND THAT FORMS WHEN OPPOSITE PARTIAL CHARGES ON ADJACENT MOLECULES ATTRACT EACHOTHER
    HYDROGEN
  79. THE FURTHER THE ELECTRON IS FROM THE NUCLEUS THE ....
    GREATER THE ATOMS ENERGY
  80. ELECTRONS ORBIT IN A SPECIFIC ?
    ORDER/LEVEL
  81. WHAT IS THE OUTER SHELL CALLED
    VALANCE SHELL
  82. HOW MANY ELECTRONS CAN THE FIRST SHELL HOLD
    2
  83. HOW MANY ELECTRONS CAN EACH SHELL AFTER THE FIRST HOLD
    8 TO BE FULL AND STABLE
  84. AN ATOM THAT HAS ONLY ONE ELECTRON ON ITS SHELL IS SAID TO BE
    REACTIVE AND UNSTABLE
  85. WHAT TYPE OF COVALENT BOND DOES WATER HAVE
    POLAR
  86. WHAT TYPE OF BOND HOLDS WATER MOLECULES TOGETHER
    HYDROGEN
  87. TENDENCY OF WATER MOLECULES TO STICK TOGETHER
    COHESION
  88. MEASURE OF HOW DIFFICULT IT IS TO STRETCH OR BREAK THE SURFACE OF WATER
    SURFACE TENSION
  89. WATER CAN ABSORB A LOT OF HEAT WITHOUT WARMING UP VERY MUCH ITSELF BECAUSE IT
    MODERATES TEMPERATURE
  90. WHEN WATER FREEZES IT EXPANDS CREATING ICE. THIS ALLOWS THE ICE TO FLOAT AND THE WATER TO STAY LIQUD
    WHY
    WATER IS LESS DENSE
  91. THE TENDENCY OF MATERIALS TO DISSOLVE OR NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER MAKES IT THE
    UNIVERSAL SOLVENT
  92. THE TENDENCY OF WATER MOLECULES TO FORM HYDROGEN BONDS WITH OTHER SUBSTANCES
    ADHESION
  93. A MIXTURE THAT CONSISTS OF TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES
    SOLUTION
  94. SUBSTANCE BEING DISOLVED IN A MIXTURE
    SOLUTE
  95. DISSOLVING AGENT IN A MIXTURE
    SOLVENT
  96. TYPE OF ION THAT IS AN ACID
    HYDROGEN ION H+
  97. DENOTES HYDROGEN IONS
    ACID
  98. TYPE OF ION THAT IS A BASE
    HYDROXIDE ION OH-
  99. ACCEPTS HYDROGEN IONS OR RELEASES HYDROXIDE IONS
    BASE
  100. WATER LOVING MOLECULES
    HYDROPHILIC
  101. WATER FEARING MOLECULES
    HYDROPHOBIC
  102. MOLECULES THAT ARE POLAR/IONIZED AND WILL EASILY DISSOLVE IN WATER
    HYDROPHILIC
  103. MOLECULES THAT ARE NON-POLAR/NON-IONIZED AND DO NOT DISSOLVE IN OR FORM HYDROGEN BONDS WITH WATER
    HYDROPHOBIC
  104. TYPE OF SOLUTION THAT CONTAINS THE SAME AMOUNT OF H+ AS IT DOES OH-
    NEUTRAL
  105. ON A PH SCALE 0-6
    ACIDIC
  106. ON A PH SCALE 7
    NEUTRAL
  107. ON A PH SCALE 8-14
    BASIC
  108. PREGENTS HARMFUL CHANGES IN PH BY ACCEPTING H+ WHEN THAT ION IS IN EXCESS AND DENOTING H+ WHEN IT IS DEPLETED
    BUFFER
  109. HOW MANY COVALENT BONDS CAN CARBON FORM
    4
  110. SMALL MOLECULAR SUBUNITS THAT LINK TOGETHER TO ROM LONG CHAINS CALLED POLYMERS
    MONOMERS
  111. MONOMERS LINK TOGETHER TO FORM LONG CHAINS CALLED
    POLYMERS
  112. LINKS MONOMERS TOGETHER
    DEHYDRATION
  113. BREAKS MONOMERS APART
    HYDROLYSIS
  114. WHICH GROUP OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINS C,H, AND O IN THE PROPORTION OF __:__:__
    CARBOHYDRATE 1:2:1
  115. WHICH GROUPS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER AND HAVE DIVERSE CHEMICAL STRUCTURES
    LIPIDS
  116. WHICH TYPE OF TRIGLYCERIDE CONTAINS ALL THE DYDROGEN IT POSSIBLY CAN AND IS TYPICALLY A SOLID AT ROOMS TEMPERATURE
    SATURATED FAT
  117. WHICH TRIGLYCERIDE CONTAINS AT LEAST ONE DOUBLE BOND AND IS TYPICALLY A LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
    UNSATURATED FAT
  118. WHICH TRIGLYCERIDE IS AN UNSATUREATED FAT THAT HAS STRAIGHT FATTY ACID TAILS AND IS THE MOST LIKELY TYPE OF FAT TO RAISE THE RISK OF HEAR DISEASE
    TRANS FAT
  119. HOW MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF AMINO ACIDS ARE THERE
    20
  120. A COVALENT BOND THAT LINKS EACH AMINO ACID TO ITS NEIGHBOR
    PEPTIDE BOND
  121. HOW MANY AMINO ACIDS ARE TERMED ESSENTIAL
    8
  122. WHAT DETERMINES THE UNIQUE 3D SHAPE OF A PROTEIN
    RESULT OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN R GROUPS
  123. FOUR LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE
    PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY, AND QUATERNARY
  124. THE GENETIC CODE (DNA) SPECIFIES WHAT ABOUT EACH _____ SEQUENCE OF EACH PROTEIN
    AMINO ACIDE
  125. WHY IS THE 3D STRUCTURE OF A PROTEIN IMPORTANT
    BECAUSE IT IS VITAL TO ITS FUNCTION
  126. PROTEIN LOSSES ITS STRUCTURE AND CEASES TO FUNCTION WHEN
    DENATURATION
  127. FACTORS THAT CAUSE DENATURATION
    HEAT, SALT CONCENTRATION AND PH
  128. THREE COMPONENTS OF DNA NUCLEOTIDE
    5 CARBON SUGAR, PHOSPHATE GROUP, AND NITROGENOUS BASE
  129. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE THREE COMPONENTS OF THE DNA NUCLEOTIDE AND THE RNA NUCLEOTIDE
    • TYPE OF SUGAR
    • DNA - RIBOSE
    • RNA - DEOXYRIBOSE
  130. FIVE NITROGENOUS BASES
    A,C,G,T,U
  131. COMPOUNDS WHICH HAVE THE SAME MOLECULAR FORMULA BUT DIFFERENT STRUCTURES
    ISOMER
  132. MADE BY ADDING SMALLER MOLECULES TOGETHER
    COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES
  133. WHAT ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF CARBOHYDRATES
    MONOSACCHARIDES
  134. TYPE OF PROTEIN
    ENZYMES
  135. MONOMER OF A PROTEIN IS AN
    AMINO ACID
  136. PROTEINS ARE MADE UP OF A SET OF ____ AMINO ACIDS
    20
  137. BOND BETWEEN TWO AMINO ACIDS
    DIPEPTIDE BOND
  138. FOUR BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
    CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, AND NUCLEIC ACID
  139. EXAMPLE OF A STARCH
    PLANTS
  140. PEOPLE STORE STARCH IN THE FORM OF
    GLYCOGEN
  141. HAS A STRUCTURE DIFFERNT THAN STARCH BUT IS SIMILAR TO STARCH IN OTHER WAYS - STORED IN MUSCLE CELLS
    GLYCOGEN
  142. WE CAN EAT STARCH BECAUSE OF THE PROCESS OF
    HYDROLYSIS
  143. THE MOST ABUNDANT MOLECULE ON EARTH - MAKES UP MOST OF THE NATURAL WORLD
    CELLULOSE
  144. AN EXAMPLE OF A LIPID
    WAXES
  145. CENTRAL ELEMENT ARE CARBON RINGS
    STEROIDS
  146. STUDY PROTEIN STRUCTURES - BE ABLE TO LABEL
  147. 4 BASES OF DNA
    A,T,G,C,
  148. WHAT ARE THE FOUR BASES IN RNA
    A,U,C,G
  149. IS DNA SINGLE OR DOUBLE STRANDED
    DOUBLE
  150. IS RNA SINGLE OR DOUBLE STRANDED
    SINGLE

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