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- Demography is the scientific study of
- Demographers seek to know the levels and
- trends in population size and its components.
- They search for explanations of
- demographic change and their implications for societies.
- They use censuses, birth and death
- records, surveys, visa records, even motor vehicle and school registrations.
- Demographers shape these data into
- manageable forms such as simple counts, rates, and ratios.
The absolute number of a population or any demographic even occurring in a specified area during a specified time period ie 3,899,589 live births in the United States in 1995.
The frequency of demographic events in a population in a specified time period ie the birth rate in 1995 was 14.8 live births per 1,000 population in the USA.
How frequently an event is occuring- how common it is.
The relation of one population subgroup to another subgroup in the same population; one subgroup divided by another.
ex- 96 males per 100 females
The relation of a population subgroup to the entire population; a population subgroup divided by the entire population.
ex- the proportion foreign-born, which was 9% of the total US population in 1996.
What is population geography /spatial demography?
- The spatial is special – most data are
- spatial in that they are referring to place or attributes at locations
- Understand differences across space
- rather than regularities
Various scales from local to global
The analysis of numerical spatial data
The development of spatial theory
- The constructing and testing of
- mathematical models of spatial processes
- Empirical validation of a theoretical
John Snow and the Pump Handle
- John Snow, M.D. (1813--1858), a legendary figure in epidemiology, provided one of the earliest examples of
- using epidemiologic methods to identify risk for disease and recommend preventive action. Snow was interested in cholera and supported the unpopular theory that cholera was transmitted by water rather than through bad air.
On August 31, 1854, London experienced a recurrent epidemic of cholera. Snow suspected water from the Broad Street pump as the source of disease. To test his theory, Snow reviewed death records of area residents who died from cholera and interviewed household members, documenting that most deceased persons had lived near and had drunk water from the pump. Snow presented his findings to community leaders, and the pump handle was removed on September 8, 1854. Removal of the handle prevented additional cholera deaths, supporting Snow's theory that cholera was a waterborne, contagious disease.
Despite the success of this investigation, the cause of cholera remained a matter of debate until Vibrio cholerae was isolated in 1883.
Types of Population Studies
Population studies, Type I
Knowledge of nondemographic events are used to understand demographic events
Population studies, Type II
- Knowledge of demographic events
- are used to understand nondemographic events
Cohort vs Period
A statistic that measures events occurring to a cohort (a group of people sharing a common demographic experience) who are observed through time.
ex- the birth cohort- people born in the same year or period, marriage cohorts, school class cohorts.
A statistic that measures events occurring to all or part of a population during one period of time; this measure "takes a snapshot" of a population.
ex- the death rate of the entire Canadian population in 1997 was 7 per, 1000
Age and Sex compostion
Age and sex are the most basic population characteristics. Every population has a different age and sex compostion. This can have an impact on social and economic situation.
The age at which exactly half the population is older and half is younger.
Ratio of persons in the "dependent" ages (under 15 and over 64) to those in "economically productive" ages (15-64) in a population.
Can be used as an indicator of the economic burden the productive portion of a population must carry.
Countries with high fertility rates usually have high age-dependency ratios because of large proportion of children in population.
Ratio of males to females in a population, usually expressed as the number of males per every 100 females.
A population pyramid graphically displays a population’s age and sex composition.
Horizontal bars present the numbers or proportions of males and females in each age group.
The sum of all the age-sex groups in the population pyramid equals 100 percent of the population.
Pyramids may show single years of age, or show data in age groups.
Populations of countries can differ markedly as a result of past and current patterns of fertility, mortality, and migration. However, they all tend to fall into three general profiles of age-sex composition.
Rapid growth: is indicated by a pyramid with a large percentage of people in the younger ages.
Slow growth: is reflected in a pyramid with a smaller proportion of the population in the younger ages.
Zero growth: or decline is shown by decreasing numbers in the younger age groups.
is indicated by a pyramid with a large percentage of people in the younger ages.
is reflected in a pyramid with a smaller proportion of the population in the younger ages.
or decline is shown by decreasing numbers in the younger age groups.
the tendency of a highly fertile population that has been rapidly increasing in size to continue to do so for decades after the onset of even a substantial decline in fertility.
China's population to near 1.4 billion by 2015
- NANJING, July 3 (Xinhua) -- The
- population of China, the world's most populous country, is projected to reach 1.39 billion by the end of 2015, with those age 60 or over topping 200 million people.
The urban population is projected to be over 700 million over the next five years, for the first time exceeding the rural population.
The increase in the next five years would be based upon the nation's population momentum, which would begin to decline after 2015.
Chinese government statistics show China's population stood at 1.32 billion at the end of 2008, which was about 2.5 times the number in 1949 when the People's Republic of China was founded.
To put a hold on the fast growth, the Chinese government adopted a one-child policy in the late 1970s. The policy had helped China's total population increase less than 40 percent between 1978 and 2008, whereas it nearly doubled between 1949 and 1978.
However, during the next five years the development of China's population is expected to go through major transitional changes.
China's first boom in its aging population is expected in the next five years, with roughly an average of eight million people turning 60 each year, 3.2 million more than occurred between 2006 and 2010.
In the coming five years, the ratio of the population aged 15 to 59 would peak and then slowly fall, whereas the population dependency ratio, a measure of the proportion of the population too young or too old to work, would rise for the first time after over 40 years of decreasing.
Sources of demographic data
1.Incidence data: counts of events as they occur
Examples: births, deaths, border crossings
2.Enumeration data: counts of people and measurements of their characteristics
- Examples: age, occupation, income in the
- previous year, etc.
•Measure the incidence of vital events
•Usually births, deaths, marriages, divorces
•Information obtained from legal documents such as birth and death certificates, marriage licenses, divorce decrees
- •Events are registered continuously, but compiled periodically
•Often additional information is provided such as age at death, most recent occupation, race, age of mothers etc.
•Health Related Incidence Statistics
–Reportable Diseases such as TB, STD, Rabies, Measles, Aids
–Center for Disease Control Monthly Reports
•Immigration Incidence Data
–Immigration and Naturalization Documents
–Data a by-product of administration
–Immigration numbers do not reflect undocumented/illegal incidence
–No direct record of internal mobility
•Sources of US Vital Statistics Data
–The National Center for Health Statistics
•Monthly vital statistics reports
–US Department of Health and Human Services
Historical Background of Vital Statistics
•Original sources were Parish Registers
•Evolved into a secular compulsory system for all members of society
–Source for historical demographic research
–Source for Family Reconstitution research
•Transition from Local to National compilation
–Standardized US Birth and Death registration (1910)
–Standardized marriage and divorce registration (1958 – still not uniform)
Population Reference Bureau
•Source of information around the world about population, health, and the environment (www.prb.org)
•Datafinder: Hub for U.S. and International Data
•2011 World Population Data Sheet
- •Good integration of data available for demographic research
- (note the source of the data)
Census and Survey Data
•Population size and characteristics
•Mission of the Bureau of the Census
To be the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant and quality data about the people and economy of the United States
–Reapportionment, representation in the House of Representatives, 1790
–Inform public policy and administration
–Forecast size and characteristics of the population
What is the census ?
•The U.S. Census counts every resident in the United States. It is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution and takes place every 10 years. The data collected by the decennial census determine the number of seats each state has in the U.S. House of Representatives and is also used to distribute billions in federal funds to local communities.
•The 2010 Census represented the most massive participation movement ever witnessed in our country. Approximately 74 percent of the households returned their census forms by mail;
the remaining households were counted by census workers walking neighborhoods throughout the United States. National and state population totals from the 2010 Census were released on December 21, 2010. Redistricting data, which include additional state, county and local counts, will be released starting in February 2011.
•Census information affects the numbers of seats your state occupies in the U.S. House of Representatives. And people from many walks of life use census data to advocate for causes, rescue disaster victims, prevent diseases, research markets, locate pools of skilled workers and more.
•When you do the math, it's easy to see what an accurate count of residents can do for your community. Better infrastructure. More services. A brighter tomorrow for everyone. In fact, the information the census collects helps to determine how more than $400 billion dollars of federal funding each year is spent on infrastructure and services like:
- –Hospitals, Job training centers,
- Schools, Senior centers, Bridges, tunnels and other-public works projects, Emergency services
Who is counted (census) – complicated
The Concept Of Usual Residence
The Residence Rule
- People Away From Their Usual
- Residence On Census Day
Visitors On Census Day
- People Who Live In More Than One
- People Without A Usual Residence
- Movers On Census Day
- People Who Are Born Or Die On
- Census Day
- Nonrelatives Of The Householder
- U.S. Military Personnel
- Merchant Marine Personnel On U.S.
- Flag Maritime/Merchant Vessels
- Foreign Citizens In The U.S.
- U.S. Citizens And Their
- Dependents Living Outside The U.S.
- People In Correctional Facilities
- For Adults
- People In Group Homes And
- Residential Treatment Centers For Adults
- People In Health Care Facilities
- People In Juvenile Facilities
- People In Residential
- School-Related Facilities
- People In Shelters
- People In Transitory Locations
- (e.g., RV parks, campgrounds, marinas)
- People In Religious-Related
- Residential Facilities
- People In Workers’ Residential
‘Race’ and ‘Racial Identity’
•Race as biology (18th and 19th century classification efforts)
•4 Subspecies of Homo Sapiens: in modern terms known as Native Americans, Whites, Blacks, Asians.
Social Contructionist perspective:
•No objective, biological basis for defining racial groups
•Race is a concept that is used to reinforce and perpetuate social differences
Persistent common perspective:
•The everyday understanding of race that exists in society
•Evident in racial stereotypes, the way race affects norms and behaviors
- Critical race theory: focus on
- the intersection of race, law & power
Race: The Power of an Illusion 10 Quick Facts
- Race is a modern idea.
- Slavery predates race.
- Race and freedom were born together.
- Race has no genetic basis
- Race justified social inequalities as natural
- Human subspecies don't exist
- Race is not biological, but racism is still real
- Most variation is within, not between "races."
- Skin color is only skin deep.
- Colorblindness will not end racism.
Historically in the U.S. Census with regards to race
1790: race or color was considered part of the natural order with differential entitlement for citizenship and legal standing
•Only those who were “free and white” could become citizens
•Constitution required that enslaved persons be counted at 60 percent for the purpose of determining population and electoral apportionment
•Indians who did not pay taxes were excluded; those that did were counted
1850: Color was added as a census classification: white, black, mulatto
•Two forms: “free” inhabitants and slave inhabitants
1870: Chinese and (American) Indian added as additional categories
•1870 and after reflected issues of immigration, territorial expansion, new ties due to military involvement
How are the race categories used in Census 2000 defined?
"White" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race or races as "White" or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.
"Black or African American" refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicated their race or races as "Black, African Am., or Negro," or wrote in entries such as African American, Afro American, Nigerian, or Haitian.
"American Indian and Alaska Native" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. It includes people who indicated their race or races by marking this category or writing in their principal or enrolled tribe, such as Rosebud Sioux, Chippewa, or Navajo.
"Asian" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. It includes people who indicated their race or races as "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," or "Other Asian," or wrote in entries such as Burmese, Hmong, Pakistani, or Thai.
"Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicated their race or races as "Native Hawaiian," "Guamanian or Chamorro," "Samoan," or "Other Pacific Islander," or wrote in entries such as Tahitian, Mariana Islander, or Chuukese.
"Some other race" was included in Census 2000 for respondents who were unable to identify with the five Office of Management and Budget race categories. Respondents who provided write-in entries such as Moroccan, South African, Belizean, or a Hispanic origin (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) are included in the Some other race category.
Classification by Race, Ethnicity, Color, or National Origin (Initiative Constitutional Amendment)
- 3,066,254 / 36.1% Yes votes ...... 5,417,660 / 63.9%
- No votes
Should state and local governments be prohibited from classifying any person by race, ethnicity, color, or national origin? Various exemptions apply. This measure restricts, effective January 1, 2005, state and local governments from "classifying" information on a person's race, ethnicity, color, or national origin for the purposes of public education, public contracting, public employment, and other government operations.
Historical Highlights of the United States’ Immigration Policy
1882: Congress suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years
- 1891: Congress legislated that
- aliens were not allowed entry if they suffered
- from “a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease” or if they were criminals
1903: insanity was added
1907: tuberculosis was added
1917: a highly controversial literacy requirement for over age 16
1921: The Quota Law
•limited the number of aliens of any nationality to 3% of foreign born persons of that nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910.
•about 350,000 people could enter the U.S. annually as quota immigrants
•close relatives of U.S. immigrants and professionals not affected
•passed after WW1 because of widespread belief that “millions of war-torn Europeans were about to descend on the United States – a veritable flood which would completely subvert the traditional American way of life”
1924: Immigration Quota Act
•even more restrictive
•public debate had led to a polarization of racist theories
•“People from Northern Europe were genetically superior”
•changed quota to 2% of foreign born in 1890 (70% Northern Europe)
1929: The National Origins Quota
•maximum of 150,000 immigrants
•proportion from each country determined by a complicated calculation from 1790 (1st Census) and subsequent population increases
•close relatives still exempt
1952: The McCarran-Walter Act or the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952
•in the midst of the anti-communist McCarthy era
•retained the system of national origin quotas
•added a system of preferences based largely on occupation
•up to 50% of visas for each country to be filled by highly skilled persons and those with services urgently needed
•relatives were ranked next, followed by people with no salable skills and no relatives
•severely restrictive even for countries with high quotas
1965: The Immigration Act of 1965
•national origins no longer the principal determinant
•annual limit of 120,000 from Western hemisphere
•limit of 170,000 from Non-western hemisphere
•no more than 20,000 from any single country
•first opportunities given to relatives of citizens
•parents could migrate regardless of quotas
•Labor Department certificate required for occupational preferences applications
Amended in 1976
•Law amended so that parents have highest priority only if the child was over 21 to eliminate the ploy of illegals (undocumented) bearing children in the U.S.
•Directly led to the increase in the number of undocumented and illegal immigrants
1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)
•Amnesty offered to illegal immigrants if living continuously since before 1982
•Unlawful for an employer to knowingly hire an illegal worker
•Fine of $250 and possible incarceration
•(Between 1965 and 1986 the number of European immigrants declined
•(The number of immigrants from Asia increased 1,200%)
1990: Amendments to the Immigration Act
•total number of immigrants increased to 700,000 for 3 years
•then to drop permanently in 1995 to a level of 675,000
•main thrust to enhance family reunification
•reserved 140,000 visas for immigrants with special occupations
•reserved 10,000 visas for individuals with at least $500,000 to invest in a new business that creates at least 10 jobs
•40,000 visas set aside for a period of 3 years for people from countries that had been practically shut out for the prior two decades
•16,000 earmarked for the Irish, almost all used by illegal aliens (visa over-stayers) already living in the United States
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
•Strengthens efforts to combat illegal immigration
- •Creates higher standards of financial self-sufficiency for the
- admission of sponsored legal immigrants
•To sponsor a family member, income must be at 125 percent of the federal poverty level
•Funds and efforts to restrict illegal entry
•Enforcement in the Interior
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
•reforms the entitlement policy for poor families and imposes new limits on alien access to welfare and other social services
•abolished the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
•Supplemental Security Income, Food Stamps, Medicaid
•Changes in immigrant eligibility for public assistance
•New immigrants ineligible for first five years
•State discretion after that
•Affidavits of support made binding
•Department of Homeland Security
•No longer the U.S. immigration and naturalization service (INS)
•The Patriot Act – (Issue of National Security)
•Local and state law enforcement agencies are required and authorized to use strict criteria to detain illegal immigrants
•Stronger border control, surveillance techniques (E-verify), workplace raids
•Conflation of immigration and illegal immigration and terrorism
•December, 2005, House passed an immigration bill that made illegal residence in the country a federal crime rather than a civil infraction.
Council Bill Number: 114436
Ordinance Number: 121063
AN ORDINANCE concerning inquiries by Seattle City officers and employees into immigration status, and activities designed to ascertain such status; and amending Seattle Municipal Code Chapter 4.18 in connection therewith.
- Date introduced/referred: December 9, 2002
- Date passed: January 27, 2003 Status: Passed As Amended Vote: 9-0 Date of Mayor's signature: February 5, 2003
- Committee: Neighborhoods, Arts and Civil
- Sponsor: LICATA
Index Terms: CITIZENSHIP, CIVIL-RIGHTS, CITY-EMPLOYEES, POLICE-DEPARTMENT, PUBLIC-REGULATIONS
- AN ORDINANCE concerning inquiries
- by Seattle City officers and employees into immigration status, and activities
- designed to ascertain such status; and amending Seattle Municipal Code Chapter
- 4.18 in connection therewith.
WHEREAS, the city of Seattle is comprised of immigrants from throughout the world who contribute to Seattle's social vivacity and cultural richness; and
WHEREAS, Seattle has been a city that traditionally respects the rights of and provides equal services to all individuals, regardless of race, ethnicity, or immigration status; and
WHEREAS, the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon have left immigrant communities of color afraid to access benefits to which they are entitled, for fear of being reported to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS); and
WHEREAS, the Seattle Police Department issued a Directive on June 6, 2002, providing guidelines stating, among other things, that Seattle Police officers may not request specific documents for the sole purpose of determining a person's civil immigration status, and may not initiate police action based solely on a person's civil immigration status; and
WHEREAS, all Seattle City officers and employees should be afforded analogous guidance with respect to inquiries into immigration status; and
WHEREAS, a number of other jurisdictions in the United States have enacted policies or laws recognizing that their officers and employees should properly play a limited role with respect to matters relating to immigration status; and
WHEREAS, these amendments to Seattle Municipal Code Ch. 4.18 are consistent with federal laws regarding localities' responsibilities to cooperate with federal immigration authorities; and
- WHEREAS, this ordinance is not
- intended to interfere with the enforcement of laws.
WHEREAS, amending SMC Ch. 4.18.is an effective way to guide city officials and employees to adhere to federal law while helping to protect the safety and health of all members of our community.
BE IT ORDAINED BY THE CITY OF SEATTLE AS FOLLOWS:
Section 1. A new Section 4.18.015 is added to Seattle Municipal Code Chapter 4.18, as follows:
- Inquiries into immigration status.
(A) Notwithstanding Seattle Municipal Code Section 4.18.010, unless otherwise required by law or by court order, no Seattle City officer or employee shall inquire into the immigration status of any person, or engage in activities designed to ascertain the immigration status of any person.
- Seattle Police officers are exempted from the limitations imposed by Subsection (A), above, with respect to a person whom the officer has reasonable suspicion to believe: (1) has previously been deported from the United States; (2) is again present in the United States; and (3) is committing or has committed a felony criminal-law violation.
Senate Votes to Fund Sanctuary Cities Wednesday, October 7, 2009, 9:28 PM EDT
•The Senate voted, 61-38, to table an amendment offered by Sen. David Vitter (R-LA) that would prevent the FY2010 Commerce, Justice and Science spending bill from funding sanctuary cities.
•The vote went along party lines except for three Republicans who voted with the Democrats to table the amendment - Snowe (ME), Murkowski (AK) and Voinovich (OH). One Democrat voted against the motion - Landrieu (LA).
•The Vitter Amendment, if adopted, would have prevented federal funds from going to states and municipalities with sanctuary policies in place that protect illegal aliens, criminal aliens, and, potentially, terrorists.
•Sanctuary policies bar public officials, including police officers, from asking an individual's immigration status and from reporting illegal aliens to federal authorities.
•In 1996, Congress passed a law that specifically prohibits state and local governments from enacting sanctuary policies.
•Despite that, cities such as San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago and Houston, still have sanctuary policies in place.
•Maine is the only state with a sanctuary policy.
In-State Tuition Laws
•The Immigration Nationality Act of 1996 prohibits access to in-state tuition benefits by undocumented students (section 8 USC 1623) It reads “…an alien who is not lawfully present in the United States shall not be eligible on the basis of residence within a State for any postsecondary education benefit unless a citizen or national of the United States is eligible for such a benefit…”
•Several states have taken it upon themselves to override this provision by offering in-state tuition to illegal aliens|undocumented students.
•Conversely, some states have passed laws preventing these benefits.
Washington In-state Tuition
- •Effective July 1, 2003, Washington's HB
- 1079 allows illegal aliens access to in-state tuition.
•Resided in Washington for at least three years and
•have completed a full senior year of high school in Washington and
•have graduated from a Washington high school or Received a GED in Washington and
•have lived in the state for three full years prior to receiving the GED and
•Continuously lived in Washington immediately after receiving diploma or GED and
•Provide an affidavit stating the student will apply for legalization when he/she is eligible to do so .
Scramble to help UW graduate who's an illegal immigrant
A week ago, Jorge-Alonso Chehade faced a dilemma familiar to many illegal immigrants: leave the U.S. and be banished for 10 years or stay and live as a fugitive.
In a three-day span, the circumstances around his departure, ordered by an immigration judge 120 days earlier, were changing by the hour.
The 22-year-old University of Washington business-school grad was set to board a flight back to Peru Thursday morning, the day before his departure deadline.
The Dream Act
The federal DREAM Act (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act), is a bipartisan legislation that would permit a select group of undocumented students conditional legal status and eventual citizenship granted that they meet the following requirements:
--if they were brought to the United States before they turned 16,
- --are below the age of 35,
- --have lived here continuously for five years,
- --graduated from a U.S. high school or obtained a GED
- --have good moral character with no criminal record and
- --attend college or enlist in the military for at least two years.
Supporters want to “bring these students out of the shadows, out from underground”.
Underground Undergrads Project
Testimonial of Tam Tran in Lost and Found:
Underground Undergrads Project | Seattle Underground Railway
Since it was first introduced in 2001, the Dream Act has passed the Senate Judiciary Committee four times. It also passed the full Senate in 2006 but died when the House didn't take up the measure. In December, the lame-duck Democratic House passed the Dream Act for the first time in the bill's 10-year legislative history. It was killed the same week in the Senate.
However, the current Congress is unlikely to adopt the legislation, which Republican leaders in the House have denounced as a form of amnesty for illegal immigrants.
College Board Endorses In-State Tuition Rates for Illegal Aliens Tuesday, April 21, 2009, 4:09 PM EDT
•The U.S. College Board has stayed out of the debate about in-state tuition for illegal aliens, until now. The Board, which consists of 5,000 colleges and universities, is urging Congress to allow states to offer in-state rates to illegal aliens and provide a path to citizenship.
•Four states have passed legislation prohibiting illegal aliens from obtaining the lower rates, and most states follow federal law that stipulates that states cannot offer lower rates to illegal aliens than they offer to out-of-state students.
•The DREAM Act, which offers amnesty to illegal aliens brought into the country by their parents and who graduated from U.S. high schools, has been proposed in both the House and Senate.
•"This is a new area for us, but it was an easy call," said Thomas W. Rudin, a senior vice president for the College Board.
•According to an Associated Press report, the College Board found that about 360,000 illegal aliens could qualify for the tuition aid with another 715,000 between the ages of 5-17 that could also benefit if they finish high school. They also state that states that offer tuition aid to illegal aliens saw an increase in college revenues.
Immigration Officials Prepping for Amnesty Friday, October 2, 2009, 10:35 AM EDT
•A New York Times' story reveals that immigration officials at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services have begun preparations for issuing visas to 11-18 million illegal aliens who would be granted an amnesty if Congress is able to pass immigration reform legislation.
•Mayorkas also said that Pres. Obama has told the agency that amnesty would be part of an immigration reform bill, so the agency is trying to be ready for the massive influx of visa applications.
‘Racial Identity’ and WHO IS MIXED RACE?
1. depends on whether the individual identifies her/himself or has his/her racial identity determined by someone else
- •Internal – what the individual thinks their identity is
- •External – what others believe the individuals race to be
- •Expressed – what we tell others our racial identity is
•In absence of this information look to racial and cultural markers, such as appearance, surname, and language.
•Racial composition of the context, ideology, familiarity, etc.
4. Individual’s personal history
Increased Incidence of Interracial Marriage
•Sparked by civil rights movement of 1950s and 1960s
•1967 supreme court decision overturned state antimiscegenation laws (interracial marriage was still illegal in 14 states)
•Between 1970 and 1992 the share of all marriages that were between people of different races tripled, rising from 0.7 to 2.2 percent
•Rate of interracial marriage is highest among young people (period and cohort effect)
•Interracial baby boom
•Between 1970 and 1992 the percent of births that were to mixed-race parents increased from 1.0 to 3.4 percent
•Figures may underestimate the rate of interracial baby boom (marital births)