Chapter 1 - Mental Health and Mental Illness

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plbernal
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Chapter 1 - Mental Health and Mental Illness
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2012-03-27 23:15:30
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mental health nursing foundations
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Mental Health Nursing
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  1. Mental Health
    The ability to recognize ones own potential, cope with normal stress, work productively and make contributions to the community
  2. Traits of Mental Health
    The ability to think rationally, communicate appropriately, learn, grow emotionally, be resilient, and have a healthy self-esteem
  3. Mental Illness
    Considered clinically significant when marked by distress, disability, risk of disability, loss of freedom or is culturally defined
  4. Mental Health Continuum
    A conceptual line used to represent levels of mental health and mental illness that vary from person to person and vary for a particular person over time
  5. What does DSM-IV-TR stand for?
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision
  6. What is DSM-IV-TR?
    A manual that classifies mental disorders, states that there is evidence suggesting that the symptoms and causes of a number of disorders are influenced by cultural and ethnic factors
  7. Resilience
    The ability to adapt and cope which helps people to face tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress. Rather than falling victim to negative emotions, resilient people recognize the feelings, readily deal with them, and learn from the experience.
  8. Attributes of mental health
    • - Accurate appraisal of reality
    • - Ability to love and experience joy
    • - Capacity to deal with conflicting emotions
    • - Ability to live without (undue) fear, guilt, or anxiety
    • - Ability to take responsibility for one’s own actions
    • - Ability to control one’s own behavior
    • - Think clearly
    • - Relate to others
    • - Attain self-defined spirituality
    • - Negotiate each developmental task
    • - Ability to work and be productive
    • - Maintain a healthy self-concept and self-value
    • - Ability to play and laugh
  9. Signs of thinking clearly
    • - Problem solve
    • - Use good judgment
    • - Reason logically
    • - Reach insightful conclusions
    • - Be creative
  10. Ways of relating to others
    • - Form relationships
    • - Have close, loving, adaptive relationships
    • - Experience empathy toward others
    • - Manage interpersonal conflict constructively
  11. Influences that can have an impact on an individual’s mental health
    • - Available support system
    • - Spirituality and religious influences
    • - Family influences
    • - Developmental events
    • - Personality traits and states
    • - Demographic and geographic locations
    • - Negative influences
    • - Cultural/subcultural beliefs and values
    • - Health practices and beliefs
    • - Hormonal influences
    • - Biological influences
    • - Inherited factors
    • - Environmental experiences
  12. Available support systems
    • - Friends
    • - Family
    • - Community
  13. Negative influences that affect mental health
    • - Psychosocial stressors
    • - Poverty
    • - Impaired/Inadequate parenting
  14. Culture-bound syndromes
    Sets of signs and symptoms common in a limited number of cultures but virtually nonexistent in most other cultural groups
  15. Anorexia nervosa
    A medical term that signifies a loss of appetite. A person with anorexia nervosa, however may not have any loss of appetite and often is preoccupied with food and eating. A person with this disorder may repress the desire for food in order to control his or her eating.
  16. Diathesis-stress model
    A general theory that explains psychopathology using a multi-causational systems approach
  17. Diathesis
    Biological predisposition
  18. Stress
    Environmental stress or trauma
  19. What is the most accepted explanation for mental illness?
    Diathesis-Stress model
  20. NAMI
    National Alliance on Mental Illness
  21. What does NAMI do?
    Helps patients and families deal with mental illness
  22. Pibloktoq
    An uncontrollable desire to tear off one’s clothing and expose oneself to severe winter weather.
  23. Homeostasis
    Our body's natural ability and tendency to regain its balance when disease or injury occurs
  24. How does homeostasis affect mental health?
  25. Self-Directed
    Consumers lead, control, exercise choice over, and determine their own path of recovery
  26. Individual-and person-centered
    Recovery is based on unique strengths and resiliencies, as well as needs, preferences, experiences (including past trauma), and cultural backgrounds
  27. Empowering
    Consumers have the authority to choose from a range of options, participate in all decisions that will affect their lives, and be educated and supported in so doing
  28. Holistic
    Recovery encompasses an individual’s whole life, including mind, body, spirit, and community
  29. Nonlinear
    Recovery is based on continual growth, occasional setbacks, and learning from experience
  30. Strengths-based
    Recovery is focused on valuing and building on the multiple capacities, resiliencies, talents, coping abilities, and inherent worth of individuals
  31. Peer-supported
    Consumers encourage and engage each other in recovery and provide a sense of belonging, supportive relationships, valued roles, and community
  32. Respect
    Community, systems, and societal acceptance and appreciation of consumers-including protecting their rights and eliminating discrimination and stigma- are crucial in achieving recovery
  33. Responsibility
    Consumers have a personal responsibility for their own self-care and recovery, for understanding and giving meaning to their experiences, and for identifying coping strategies and healing processes to promote their own wellness
  34. Hope
    Recovery provides the essential motivating message of a better future: that people can and do overcome the barriers and obstacles that confront them. Hope is the catalyst of the recovery process
  35. What is the DSM-IV-TR multiaxial system
    It is a multiaxial system that forces the diagnostician to consider a broad range of information
  36. How many axes are in the DSM-IV-TR system?
    5 axes
  37. Which axis is the main focus for nurses?
    Axis 1
  38. Why is Axis I the main focus for nurses?
    Because it is the collection of signs and symptoms and gives a focus for treatment
  39. What are the 16 major categories of disorders in Axis I?
    • - Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence
    • - Delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders
    • - Mental disorders due to a general medical condition
    • - Substance-related disorders
    • - Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
    • - Mood disorders
    • - Anxiety disorders
    • - Somatoform disorders (i.e., disorders with somatic symptoms)
    • - Factitious disorders (i.e., disorders involving “faking”)
    • - Dissociative disorders (i.e., multiple personality disorder)
    • - Sexual and gender identity disorders
    • - Eating disorders
    • - Sleep disorders
    • - Impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified
    • - Adjustment disorders
    • - Other condition that may be a focus of clinical attention
  40. Axis II
    Personality disorders and mental retardation - the classification of abnormal behavior
  41. What are the main personality disorders noted on Axis II?
    • - Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • - Narcissistic
    • - Histrionic
    • - Paranoid
    • - Borderline
    • - Dependent
    • - Schizoid
    • - Anxious/Avoidant
    • - Schizotypal
    • - Antisocial
  42. Schizoid Personality Disorder
    A personality disorder in which there is a serious defect in interpersonal relationships.
  43. What are some characteristics of a schizoid personality disorder?
    Lack of warmth, aloofness and indifference to the feelings of others
  44. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
    A personality disorder in which strikingly odd characteristics are expressed
  45. What are some characteristics of a Schizotypal personality disorder?
    Magical thinking, derealization, perceptual distortions, rigid ideas
  46. Which axes are needed for diagnosis?
    Axis I & II
  47. Axis III
    General medical conditions believed to be relevant to the mental disorder in question
  48. Narcissism
    Self-preoccupation and lack of empathy for others
  49. What are some traits of a narcissistic person?
    Self-centered, self-involved, self-important
  50. Histrionic Personality Disorder
    A personality disorder in which there is a dramatic presentation of oneself with pervasive and excessive emotionality in order to seek attention, love and admiration
  51. Borderline Personality Disorder
    A disorder characterized by disordered images of self, impulsive and unpredictable behavior, marked shifts in mood, and instability in relationships with others
  52. Axis IV
    For reporting psychosocial and environmental problem that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a mental disorder
  53. Axis V
    Gives an indication of the person’s best level of psychological, social, and occupational functioning during the preceding year, rated on a scale of 1 to 100
  54. What else is Axis V called?
    Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
  55. What are the 10 disease classifications of the ICD-10?
    • 1. Organic
    • 2. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use
    • 3. Schizophrenia, Schizotypal, and delusional disorders
    • 4. Mood (affective) disorders
    • 5. Neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders
    • 6. Behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors
    • 7. Disorders of adult personality and behavior
    • 8. Mental retardation
    • 9. Disorders of psychological development
    • 10. Behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
  56. What is the main priority for a mental health patient?
    Safety
  57. What is required to provide high quality mental health care?
    • Safety
    • Effective
    • Patient-centered
    • Timely
    • Efficient
    • Equitable
  58. What is dual diagnosis?
    A mental disorder and a coexisting substance disorder
  59. Current information suggests that the most disabling mental disorders are the result of:
    A. Biological Influences
    B. Psychological Trauma
    C. Learned ways of behaving
    D. Faulty patterns of nurturance
    A

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