Chapter 1 - Mental Health and Mental Illness
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. What would you like to do?
The ability to recognize ones own potential, cope with normal stress, work productively and make contributions to the community
Traits of Mental Health
The ability to think rationally, communicate appropriately, learn, grow emotionally, be resilient, and have a healthy self-esteem
Considered clinically significant when marked by distress, disability, risk of disability, loss of freedom or is culturally defined
Mental Health Continuum
A conceptual line used to represent levels of mental health and mental illness that vary from person to person and vary for a particular person over time
What does DSM-IV-TR stand for?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision
What is DSM-IV-TR?
A manual that classifies mental disorders, states that there is evidence suggesting that the symptoms and causes of a number of disorders are influenced by cultural and ethnic factors
The ability to adapt and cope which helps people to face tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress. Rather than falling victim to negative emotions, resilient people recognize the feelings, readily deal with them, and learn from the experience.
Attributes of mental health
- - Accurate appraisal of reality
- - Ability to love and experience joy
- - Capacity to deal with conflicting emotions
- - Ability to live without (undue) fear, guilt, or anxiety
- - Ability to take responsibility for one’s own actions
- - Ability to control one’s own behavior
- - Think clearly
- - Relate to others
- - Attain self-defined spirituality
- - Negotiate each developmental task
- - Ability to work and be productive
- - Maintain a healthy self-concept and self-value
- - Ability to play and laugh
Signs of thinking clearly
- - Problem solve
- - Use good judgment
- - Reason logically
- - Reach insightful conclusions
- - Be creative
Ways of relating to others
- - Form relationships
- - Have close, loving, adaptive relationships
- - Experience empathy toward others
- - Manage interpersonal conflict constructively
Influences that can have an impact on an individual’s mental health
- - Available support system
- - Spirituality and religious influences
- - Family influences
- - Developmental events
- - Personality traits and states
- - Demographic and geographic locations
- - Negative influences
- - Cultural/subcultural beliefs and values
- - Health practices and beliefs
- - Hormonal influences
- - Biological influences
- - Inherited factors
- - Environmental experiences
Available support systems
- - Friends
- - Family
- - Community
Negative influences that affect mental health
- - Psychosocial stressors
- - Poverty
- - Impaired/Inadequate parenting
Sets of signs and symptoms common in a limited number of cultures but virtually nonexistent in most other cultural groups
A medical term that signifies a loss of appetite. A person with anorexia nervosa, however may not have any loss of appetite and often is preoccupied with food and eating. A person with this disorder may repress the desire for food in order to control his or her eating.
A general theory that explains psychopathology using a multi-causational systems approach
Environmental stress or trauma
What is the most accepted explanation for mental illness?
National Alliance on Mental Illness
What does NAMI do?
Helps patients and families deal with mental illness
An uncontrollable desire to tear off one’s clothing and expose oneself to severe winter weather.
Our body's natural ability and tendency to regain its balance when disease or injury occurs
How does homeostasis affect mental health?
Consumers lead, control, exercise choice over, and determine their own path of recovery
Recovery is based on unique strengths and resiliencies, as well as needs, preferences, experiences (including past trauma), and cultural backgrounds
Consumers have the authority to choose from a range of options, participate in all decisions that will affect their lives, and be educated and supported in so doing
Recovery encompasses an individual’s whole life, including mind, body, spirit, and community
Recovery is based on continual growth, occasional setbacks, and learning from experience
Recovery is focused on valuing and building on the multiple capacities, resiliencies, talents, coping abilities, and inherent worth of individuals
Consumers encourage and engage each other in recovery and provide a sense of belonging, supportive relationships, valued roles, and community
Community, systems, and societal acceptance and appreciation of consumers-including protecting their rights and eliminating discrimination and stigma- are crucial in achieving recovery
Consumers have a personal responsibility for their own self-care and recovery, for understanding and giving meaning to their experiences, and for identifying coping strategies and healing processes to promote their own wellness
Recovery provides the essential motivating message of a better future: that people can and do overcome the barriers and obstacles that confront them. Hope is the catalyst of the recovery process
What is the DSM-IV-TR multiaxial system
It is a multiaxial system that forces the diagnostician to consider a broad range of information
How many axes are in the DSM-IV-TR system?
Which axis is the main focus for nurses?
Why is Axis I the main focus for nurses?
Because it is the collection of signs and symptoms and gives a focus for treatment
What are the 16 major categories of disorders in Axis I?
- - Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence
- - Delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders
- - Mental disorders due to a general medical condition
- - Substance-related disorders
- - Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
- - Mood disorders
- - Anxiety disorders
- - Somatoform disorders (i.e., disorders with somatic symptoms)
- - Factitious disorders (i.e., disorders involving “faking”)
- - Dissociative disorders (i.e., multiple personality disorder)
- - Sexual and gender identity disorders
- - Eating disorders
- - Sleep disorders
- - Impulse control disorders not elsewhere classified
- - Adjustment disorders
- - Other condition that may be a focus of clinical attention
Personality disorders and mental retardation - the classification of abnormal behavior
What are the main personality disorders noted on Axis II?
- - Obsessive-compulsive disorder
- - Narcissistic
- - Histrionic
- - Paranoid
- - Borderline
- - Dependent
- - Schizoid
- - Anxious/Avoidant
- - Schizotypal
- - Antisocial
Schizoid Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which there is a serious defect in interpersonal relationships.
What are some characteristics of a schizoid personality disorder?
Lack of warmth, aloofness and indifference to the feelings of others
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which strikingly odd characteristics are expressed
What are some characteristics of a Schizotypal personality disorder?
Magical thinking, derealization, perceptual distortions, rigid ideas
Which axes are needed for diagnosis?
Axis I & II
General medical conditions believed to be relevant to the mental disorder in question
Self-preoccupation and lack of empathy for others
What are some traits of a narcissistic person?
Self-centered, self-involved, self-important
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which there is a dramatic presentation of oneself with pervasive and excessive emotionality in order to seek attention, love and admiration
Borderline Personality Disorder
A disorder characterized by disordered images of self, impulsive and unpredictable behavior, marked shifts in mood, and instability in relationships with others
For reporting psychosocial and environmental problem that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a mental disorder
Gives an indication of the person’s best level of psychological, social, and occupational functioning during the preceding year, rated on a scale of 1 to 100
What else is Axis V called?
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
What are the 10 disease classifications of the ICD-10?
- 1. Organic
- 2. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use
- 3. Schizophrenia, Schizotypal, and delusional disorders
- 4. Mood (affective) disorders
- 5. Neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders
- 6. Behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors
- 7. Disorders of adult personality and behavior
- 8. Mental retardation
- 9. Disorders of psychological development
- 10. Behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
What is the main priority for a mental health patient?
What is required to provide high quality mental health care?
What is dual diagnosis?
A mental disorder and a coexisting substance disorder
Current information suggests that the most disabling mental disorders are the result of:
A. Biological Influences
B. Psychological Trauma
C. Learned ways of behaving
D. Faulty patterns of nurturance
What would you like to do?
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