lin auswahl

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lin auswahl
2012-01-30 05:14:02
lin english gk1

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  1. analytic (=isolating) type:
    • separate words for grammatical and lexical functions;
    • ex.: English: I will eat
    • most extreme case: languages like Chinese or Vietnamese in which one wordcorresponds to one morpheme (cf. Morphology I)
  2. synthetic type:
    • involves a rich inflectional system;
    • inflectional endings are attached to the word stem;
    • usually, in a given ending several pieces of grammatical information are encoded (cf. -um in Latin bellum: information concerning case, number, gender)
    • ex.: Greek, Latin, Sanskrit; Latin: bell-um, bell-i, ...;
    • but cf. also English: he eat-s
  3. agglutinating type
    • can be considered a subclass of the synthetic type;
    • in such languages, each affixis clearly identifiable and typically represents a single grammatical category or meaning
    • (i.e., each morpheme has a single clearly identifiable function (cf.Morphology I)); the parts are "glued" together
    • ex.: Turkish: köy 'village'köy-ler 'villages' (plural)köy-ler-in 'of the villages' (plural, genitive)
  4. Generative Grammar
    • (i) the class of well-formed sentences in any language is infinite;
    • (ii) however, when we learn a language, the input we get is obviously finite;
    • (iii) hence, there must be a finite set of underlying principles that allows us to generate as many grammatical sentences as we like;
    • (iv) generative grammar tries to find out what these rules are.
  5. Universal Grammar
    • Assumption: All human languages have a common core, a common set of underlying principles.
    • This basic ability that underlies the linguistic knowledge of all humans in their native language (whatever this language might be) is called Universal Grammar.
    • linguistic universals: structural characteristics that occur across all languages of the world
  6. Innateness Hypothesis
    These language universals are innate, i.e., when a child is born he/she is biologicallyequipped with a knowledge of certain universal elements of language structure(—> genetically encoded language faculty).
  7. Competence vs Performance
    • Linguistic competence is a native speaker's ability to produce and understand an unlimited number of utterances, including new ones;
    • it is the native speaker'sknowledge of his/her language.
    • This knowledge is tacit knowledge, i.e., it is acquired without the help of instruction when one is still a child, and it remains largely subconscious throughout life.
    • (In everyday language use, we routinely make decisions about the acceptability of forms based on this subconscious knowledge.)

    Performance corresponds to the speaker's use of this knowledge in actual speech production and comprehension. Therefore it also includes phonetic, syntactic and other speech errors.
  8. Co-articulation
    • Accomodation between overlapping articulatory gestures used in the production of adjacent segments;
    • ex.: [k] in key vs caught; (difference can be expressed with diacritics)—> adjustments in anticipation of the tongue position that will be needed for the vowel in question (key: [k.]; signals: tongue towards the palate)
  9. Assimilation
    • Influence of one segment on another, resulting in a sound becoming more like a nearby sound in terms of one or more of its phonetic characteristics;
    • e.g., nasalization of vowels before nasal consonants, voicing/devoicing,assimilation for place of articulation.
    • Assimilation may even cross the boundaries between words. ex.: incomplete; in code [n] —> [ŋ] German: loben ('to praise') —> careful speech: [lo.b.n] informal speech: []
  10. Dissimilation
    • Two sounds become less alike in articulatory or acoustic terms; rarer process than assimilation.—> easier to articulate and distinguish
    • ex.: fifths: [f.f.s] —> [f.fts] —> the sequence of three fricatives is broken up with a stop
  11. Deletion
    • Removal of a segment from certain phonetic contexts;
    • occurs in everyday rapid speech in many languages
    • ex.: suppose: [s(e upside down)p..z] —> [sp..z]
  12. Epenthesis
    • Insertion of a syllabic or non-syllabic segment within an existing string of segments,
    • e.g., in careful speech
    • ex.: something: []
  13. Defining the syllable – subsyllabic units
    • (i) nucleus (N): the syllable's only obligatory member; usually a vowel
    • (ii) coda (C): consists of those elements that follow the nucleus in the same syllable
    • (iii) rhyme (R): nucleus + coda
    • (iv) onset (O): consists of those elements that precede the rhyme in the same syllable
  14. Bound morpheme
    a morpheme that must be attached to another element,e.g., plural -s
  15. Root morpheme
    carries the major component of the word's meaning; belongs to a lexical category (N, V, A, or P)
  16. Allomorphs
    various forms of a morpheme to express the same concept; e.g., morphemes used to express indefiniteness in English: a, an.
  17. Root morpheme
    carries the major component of the word's meaning; belongs to a lexical category (N, V, A, or P)
  18. Affixes
    • do not belong to a lexical category and are always bound morphemes
    • ex.: teach+er —> teach: root morpheme, based on the verb teach —> -er: affix that combines with the root and gives a noun with themeaning 'one who teaches'
  19. Bound roots
    • root morphemes that cannot be used as words (and therefore do not belong toa conventional lexical category); abbreviation in our trees:
    • "B" —> sometimes: historical explanation (kempt = 'combed' in former times)
  20. Cliticization
    attachment of clitics to neighbouring words
  21. Clitic
    word that cannot stand alone as independent form, in general for phonological reasons, and is therefore attached to another word in the sentence
  22. Internal change
    • process that substitutes one non-morphemic segment for another;
    • ex.: sink – sank; drive – drove, foot – feet —> form their past tense/plural by changing the vowel
  23. Stress and tone placement
    • change in the placement of stress or tone to reflect a change in category;
    • e.g., presént (V) – présent (N)
  24. Reduplication
    • (part of) the base is duplicated to mark a grammatical or semantic contrast;
    • A: Full reduplication: repetition of the entire word
    • B: Partial reduplication: copies only parts of the word
    • ex.: A: Turkish: /t.abuk/ 'quickly' /t.abuk t.abuk/ 'very quickly'
    • Indonesian: /ora./ 'man' /ora. ora./ 'all sorts of men'
  25. Compounding
    combination of lexical categories to create a larger word;ex.: street light (N + N), swear word (V + N), happy hour (A + N), outhouse (P + N), ...
  26. Derivation
    • forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base through the addition of an affix;
    • ex.: V + -er to form a noun with the meaning 'one who does X'; teach-er, writ-er, sing-er, ...
  27. Endocentric compounds
    • one component of the compound (typically the righmost one)identifies the general class to which the meaning of the entireword belongs:
    • ex.: dog food —> a type of food; blackbird —> a type of bird
  28. Exocentric compounds
    • rarer; the meaning of the compound does not follow from the meanings of its parts in the same way:
    • ex.: greenbottle —> not a type of bottle but a fly of the genuslucilia
    • redneck —> not a type of neck but an ultra conservative,white working-class person
  29. Conversion
    • assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category; it is sometimes also called zero derivation.
    • ex.: N —> V: to butter the breadV —> N: (often + stress shift, which places stress on the first syllable)a building pérmit; a long walk A —> V: to dirty a shirt, to open a door
  30. Clipping
    • shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables;
    • ex.: Rob(ert), prof(essor), zoo(logical garden), fax (from facsimile).
  31. Blends
    • Words that are created from non-morphemic parts of two already existing items;
    • usually formed from the first part of one word and the final part of asecond one.
    • ex.: breakfast + lunch = brunch; smoke + fog = smog; binary + digit = bit
  32. Backformation
    • creates a new word by removing a real or supposed affix from another word in the language; (—> the new form is coined by analogy with other pairs of words which are related by aproductive morphological process; the new form is the result of reversing this process)
    • ex.: housekeep from housekeeper; edit from editor; laze from lazy
    • Note: backformation often involves an incorrect assumption about a word's form:
    • ex.: cherry —> when French cerise ('cherry') was borrowed into Middle English, the final [z]was reinterpreted as a plural marker and a new singular form was produced byremoving [z]
  33. Acronyms
    • formation of words by taking the initial letters of some or all words in aphrase or title and reading them as a word;
    • ex.: NATO: 'North Atlantic Treaty Organization'yuppie: 'young urban professional'laser: 'light amplification by simulated emission of radiation'radar: 'radio detecting and ranging'Gestapo: 'Geheime Staatspolizei'
  34. Onomatopoeia
    • formation of words whose sound represents an aspect of the thing that they name —> since they are not exact phonetic copies of noises, their form can differ from language to language, but they are very similar:
    • ex.: 'sound of a cock': English: cock-a-doodle-doo German: kikeriki Japanese: kokekokko Tagalog: kuk-kukauk —> moreover, not all onomatopoeic words have equivalents in other languages: ex.: Slavey (Athapaskan language):'sound of a bear walking unseen not far from camp': sah sah sah
  35. Word manufacture/coinage
    • —> especially common where industry requires a new and attractive name for a product (intentional invention);
    • ex.: Kodak, Teflon
  36. Inflection
    modification of a word's form through affixation/internal change/suppletion/ indicate the grammatical subclass (e.g., the plural subclass, the past andnon-past subclasses) to which it belongs