biolab140.txt

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itzlinds
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131681
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biolab140.txt
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2012-02-11 18:37:16
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Blood Lab
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Blood Lab
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  1. a measure of the concentration of dissolved particles in water is called:
    osmolarity
  2. a substance that is dissolved in water is called a:
    solute
  3. the ablity of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure in a cell is called:
    tonicity
  4. the movement of water from one side of the membrance to the other, due to a difference in solute concentration on one side of the cell verses the other is called
    osmosis
  5. a solution in which the total concentration of non-permeating solutes is the same as the ICF is called:
    isotonic (0.9%)
  6. a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than ICF is called:
    hypotonic (0.4%)
  7. a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than ICF is called:
    hypertonic (10%)
  8. is the 10% NaCl solution isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic to ICF?
    hypertonic
  9. What happend to the cells placed in 10% NaCl solution? (how did they look compared to the cells in the 0.09% solution?)
    crenate or shrink
  10. Explain why crenation happend. [include the direction of water flow and use the term 'solute concentration' and osmosis' in your answer]
    the solute concettration of the hypertonic solution is higher than that of the ICF so the water wants to flow toward the direction of the higher concentration, the water moves across the membrane by osmosis, lowering the solute concentraion so that it is equal on both sides of the membrane and the cell has shrunk in size
  11. The most abundant leukocyte in the blood is the:

    eosinophil
    erythrocyte
    lymphocyte
    monocyte
    neutrophil
    neutrophil
  12. All formed elements of blood ultimately come from:

    lymphoblast stem cells
    megakaryocytes
    reticulocytes
    pluripotent stem cells
    myeloblast stem cells
    agranulocytes
    pluripotent stem cells
  13. Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide is the primary function of which cell type?

    platelets
    eosinophils
    erythrocytes
    monocytes
    lymphocytes
    erythrocytes
  14. A person with blood type B- can safely DONATE blood to people with which of the following blood type(s)?

    B+, B-, O+, O- only
    B+, B-, AB+, AB- only
    B-, B+ only
    B-, AB- only
    B-, O- only
    B- only
    B-, B+ only
  15. Blood cells put into a ____________ solution will shrink because the solute concentration of the extracellular fluid is ___________ than the intracellular fluid, therefore water flows _____ the cells by osmosis. (0.5pts)



    hypotonic; lower; into
    hypotonic; higher; into
    hypertonic; higher; out of
    hypotonic; higher; out of
    hypertonic; lower; out of
    hypertonic; lower; into
    hypertonic; higher; out of
  16. Name two components of blood plasma other than water and ions:
    • gases ( o2, co2)
    • proteins
    • enzymes
    • nutrients (glucose, vitamins, minerals)
    • hormones
    • nitrogenous wastes (urea, ammonia)
  17. what is the name of the process by which erythrocytes are formed?
    erythropoiesis
  18. Name one fxn of basophils:
    • secrete hisamine
    • secrete heparin
  19. are eosinophils granulocytes or agranulocytes?
    granulocytes
  20. put the following formed elements in order from most abundant (=1) to least abundant (=3):

    basophils
    lymphocytes
    erythrocytes
    • 1. erythrocytes
    • 2. lymphocytes
    • 3. basophils
  21. which formed element in blood is primarily responsible for fighting parasitic infections?
    eosinophils
  22. every formed element in blood originates from the same type of precursor cell. Name this type of cell:
    pluripotient stem cell
  23. hemolysis occurs if blood cells are placed in a _______ (hypotonic/isotonic/hypertonic) solution.
    hypotonic
  24. Explain why hemolysis occurs in the situation above. (be specific, refer to solute concentration and osmosis in your answer)
    hemolysis occurs when the solute concentration outside the membrane is higher than that of the ICF. The water moves across the membrane thru osmosis, so that the solute concentrantion is equal on both sides of the membrane
  25. A person with blood type A+ can safely donate erythrocytes to people with which blood type(s)? be specific
    Type A+ and type AB+
  26. A person with blood type O- can safely receive erythorcytes from people with which blood type(s)? be specific.
    Type O- only
  27. Brenda and Fritz are married. Breand's blood type is O+. In case of an emergency, Fritz wonders if he can donate to his wife. Doing a simple experiment in lab he finds that his blood agglutinates when mixed with Anti-A anti-sera and Anti-Rh anti-sera but does not aggutinate when mixed with Anti B anit-sera. What is Fritz's blood type?

    Can Fritz safely dontate blood to Brenda?
    Type A+

    No
  28. is the 0.4% NaCl solution isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic to intracelluar fluid?
    hypotonic
  29. what happened to the cells placed in the 0.4% NaCl solution?
    hemolysis- the RBC gains water, it will expand and finally rupture
  30. Explain why hymolysis happened. [include the direction of water flow and use the term 'solute concentration' and 'osmosis' in your answer]:
    hemolysis occured because the solute concentration of the NaCl solution outside of the cell is lower than than of the ICF, so the water moves across the membrane by osmosis into the cell, in order to equal the solute concentraion on both sides of the membrane. The cell has gained more water, than it lost so the cell will burst.
  31. a __________ is typically a protein, glycoprotein, or glycolipid that is capable of binding to a _______ thereby triggering an immune reponse.
    • antigen
    • antibody
  32. if antibodies for an antigen come into contact with cells that have that antigen, a ____________ will take place.
    aggulination recation
  33. a mismatched blood type casuse a ___________ in which the agglutinated blood cells block the vessels and release free hemoglobin into the bloodstream.
    transfusion reaction
  34. if some one is blood type A they:

    can donate to:
    can receive:
    must never receive:
    • can donate to : A antigen (type A or AB)
    • can receive: type A or O
    • must never receive: B antigen (type B or AB)
  35. if someone is blood type O they:

    can safely receive of type:
    can safely donate to:
    • can safely receive of type: O
    • can safely donate to: O, A, B, AB
    • must never receive: Anti A or Anti B
  36. if someone is blood type B they:

    can safely receive of type:
    can safely donate to:
    must never receive:
    • can safely receive of type: O, B
    • can safely donate to: B, AB
    • must never receive: Anti A
  37. if someone is blood type AB they:

    can safely receive of type:
    can safely donate to:
    must never receive:
    • can safely receive of type: O, A, B, AB
    • can safely donate to: AB
    • must never receive: None
  38. the most reactive of teh Rh blood group is the ________, referred to as the _______.
    • antigen D
    • Rh factor
  39. if a person has the D antigen they are considered to be _______, and if they do not have the D antigen they are _______.
    • Rh+
    • Rh-
  40. _________ can donate to Rh+ and Rh-, but can only receive from Rh-
    Rh-
  41. Carefully examine the thin films of liquid mixture left behind. If a thin film remains uniform in appearance there is no agglutination. If the sample appears graular, agglutination has occured. Determine the blood type of the sample using the chart. Answer yes or no to whether agglutination occurred in each sample. A postive agglutination reaction indicates the blood type:

    Anti - A: NO
    Anti - B: Yes
    Rh: yes
    blood type:
    B+
  42. Carefully examine the thin films of liquid mixture left behind. If a thin film remains uniform in appearance there is no agglutination. If the sample appears graular, agglutination has occured. Determine the blood type of the sample using the chart. Answer yes or no to whether agglutination occurred in each sample. A postive agglutination reaction indicates the blood type:

    Anti - A: yes
    anti - B: yes
    Rh: no
    blood type:
    AB-
  43. Carefully examine the thin films of liquid mixture left behind. If a thin film remains uniform in appearance there is no agglutination. If the sample appears graular, agglutination has occured. Determine the blood type of the sample using the chart. Answer yes or no to whether agglutination occurred in each sample. A postive agglutination reaction indicates the blood type:

    anti A: yes
    anti B: no
    rh: no
    blood type:
    A-
  44. Carefully examine the thin films of liquid mixture left behind. If a thin film remains uniform in appearance there is no agglutination. If the sample appears graular, agglutination has occured. Determine the blood type of the sample using the chart. Answer yes or no to whether agglutination occurred in each sample. A postive agglutination reaction indicates the blood type:

    anti A: no
    anti B: yes
    Rh: yes
    blood type:
    B+
  45. Carefully examine the thin films of liquid mixture left behind. If a thin film remains uniform in appearance there is no agglutination. If the sample appears graular, agglutination has occured. Determine the blood type of the sample using the chart. Answer yes or no to whether agglutination occurred in each sample. A postive agglutination reaction indicates the blood type:

    anti A: no
    anti B: no
    Rh: no
    blood type:
    O-
  46. list the composition, formation process, relative abundance and fxn of plasma:
    • composition: water, ions (Na+, K+) gases (O2, CO2) proteins, enzymes, nurtirents (glucose, viatmins, minerals), hormones, and wates (urea, ammonia)
    • formation process: fluid matrix
    • relative abundance: little over half of blood volume
    • fxn: clotting, defense, transport
  47. list the appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of erythrocytes:
    • appearance: lack nucleus (mature cells), biconcave discs, thin centers appear almost hollow
    • formation process:erthropoiesis
    • relative abundance: most abundant formed element
    • fxn: transport O2 and CO2



  48. Identify the formed element:
    erythrocyte
  49. list the appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of platelets:
    • appearance: cell fragments, single to small clusters
    • formation process: thrombopoiesis
    • relative abundance: 2nd most abundant formed element
    • fxn: hemostasis (cessation of bleeding), vasoconstriction, platlet plug formation, and coagulation



  50. identify the formed elements:
    platelets
  51. list the classification, appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of neutrophils
    • classification: granulocytes
    • appearnace: nucleus usually with 3-5 lobes in S or C shaped array, fine reddish to violet granules in cytoplasm
    • formation process: leukopoiesis
    • relative abundance: 60-70% of WBC, 4150 cells/micorliter
    • fxn: phagocytize bacteria, release antimicrobial chemicals



  52. Identify the formed element:
    neutrophils
  53. list the classification, appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of eosinophils:
    • classification: granulocytes
    • appearance: nucleus usually had two large lobes connected by a thin strand, large orange-pink granules in cytoplasm
    • formation process: leukopoiesis
    • relative abundance: 2-4% of WBCs, 165 cells/microliter
    • fxn: phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes, allergens, and inlfammatory chemicals, release enzymes that weaken or destroy parasites



  54. Identify the formed element:
    eosinophil
  55. list the classification, appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of basophils:
    • classification: granulocyte
    • appearance: nucleus large and u-shaped to s-shaped, but typically pale and obsureed from view, coarse, abundant, dark violet granules in cytoplasm
    • formation process: leukopoiesis
    • relative abundance: <0.5% - 1% of WBCs, 44 cells/microliter
    • fxn: secrete histamine, secrete heparin



  56. identify the formed element
    basophils
  57. list the classification, appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of lymphocytes:
    • classification: agranulocytes
    • appearance: nucleus round, oviod, or slightly dimpled on one side of uniform or mottled dark violet color
    • formation process: leukopoeisis
    • relative abundance: 25-33% of WBC, 2185 cells/microliter
    • fxn: recognize and destroy infected cells, coordinate immune response, and secrete antibodies



  58. identify the fomred element:
    lymphocyte
  59. list the classification, appearance, formation process, relative abundance, and fxn of monocytes:
    • classification: agraulocytes
    • appearance: nucleus oviod, kidney-shaped, or horseshoe-shaped;violet, abundant cytoplasm with sparse fine graules
    • formation process: leukopoiesis
    • relative abundance: 3-8% of WBC, 456 cells/microliter
    • fxn: macrophages, destroy foreign and dead cells, and serve as antigen presenting cells
  60. monocytes

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