CHAPTER 2 BASIC CHEMISTRY
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What are inorganic compunds?
The class of compound is determined solely by the presence or absence of carbon. Inorganic compounds lack carbon and tend to be small, simple molecules.
Name some examples of inorganic compounds.
Water, salts, and many (but not all) acids and bases.
What are organic compounds?
The class of compound is determined solely by the presence or absence of carbon. Organic compounds are carbon-containing compounds.
Name some examples of organic compounds.
Carbohydrates, liids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What factors increase the rate of chemical reaction?
Temperature - the kinetic energy of the molecules, move more rapidly and collide more forcefully
Concentration of reacting particles - The number of collisions because of increased numbers of reacting particles.
Why is water important to the body homeostasis?
Water accounts for 2/3 of body weight and it is the most abundant of inorganic compound in the body
Water has a high heat capacity; it can absorb and release large amounts of heat before its temperature changes. It prevents sudden changes in body temperature from occurring.
Because of its polarity, water is an excellent solvent; sometimes called the universal solvent. Because nutrients, respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), and wastes can dissolve in water, water can act as a transport and exchange medium in the body.
Water is an important reactant in some types of chemical reactions such as digesting food, or the breaking down of biological molecules.
Water also serves as a protective function such as the cerebrospinal fluid. Water forms a cushion around the brain.
What is a solvent?
A liquid or gas in which smaller amounts of other substances, called solutes (which may be gases, liquids, or solids), can be dissolved or suspended.
What is a solution?
When a solvent (liquid or gas) is mixed with solutes (gases, liquids, or solids) the resulting mixture is called a solution. When the solute particles are exceedingly tiny = solution.
What is a suspension?
When a solvent (liquid or gas) is mixed with solutes (gases, liquids, or solids), but the solute particles are fairly large, the resulting mixture is called a suspension.
Explain hydrolysis reactions.
Hydrolysis reactions are a result of the break down of digested foods or biological molecules where bonds of water molecules are required in order to break down food into bits or biological molecules.
(Hydro = water lys = splitting)
What is salt?
Salt is an ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other thant the hydroxyl ion (OH-).
What are the two most common salts found in the body?
Calcium and phosphorus (found chiefly in bones and teeth).
When salts are dissolved in body fluids, salts easily separate into their ions. This process is called dissociation. Dissociation occurs rather easily because the ions have already been formed. All that remains is to pull the ions apart. This is accomplished by the polar water molecules.
Why are salts considered to be electrolytes?
Because ions are charged particles, all salts are electrolytes (substances that conduct an electrical current in solution).
Name two other electrolytes found in the body (other than salt).
Acids and bases. They ionize and then dissociate in water and cna then conduct an electrical current.
Name some characteristics of acids.
Acids have a sour taste and can dissolve many metals or "burn" a hole in a rug.
Acid is a substance that can release hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts.
When acids are dissolved in water, they release hydrogen ions and some anions
Acids that ionize completely and liberate all their protons are called strong acids, such as hydrocloric acid.
Name some characteristics of bases.
Bases have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors.
Hydroxides are common inorganic bases.
Like acids, the hydroxides ionize and dissociate in water.
When acids and bases are mixed, they react with one another (in an exchange reaction) to form water and a salt.
What is a neutralization reaction?
The result of an exchange reaction in which an acid and a base interact.
What is measured in concentration units calle pH?
The relative concentration of hydrogen (and hydroxyl) ions in various body fluids.
What is the pH scale based on?
pH units are based on the number of protons in a solution, expressed in terms of moles per liter.
Which ion is responsible for increased acidity?
The hydrogen ion
The pH scale runes from 0 to 14. How does each successive change of 1pH unit change the hydrogen-ion concentration?
It represents a tenfold change in hydrogen-ion concentration.
At the midpoint of the pH scale (pH 7) how do the hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions interact?
At the midpoint scale, the number of hydrogen ions exactly equals the number of hydroxyl ions, and the solution is neutral; that is neither acidic nor basic.
How do the hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions interact at any point lower on the pH scale of 7?
Solutions with a pH lower than 7 are acidic. The hydrogen ions outnumber the hydroxyl ions.
How do the hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions interact at any point higher on the pH scale of 7?
Solutions with a pH number higher than 7 are alkaline, or basic
What are buffers?
A substance or substances that help to stabilize the pH of a solution.
Which body organs carefully regulate the acid-base balance?
Kidneys, lungs, and a number of chemicals called buffers.
Name some important components of the body's buffer system.
Weak acids and weak bases act to maintain pH stability by taking up excess hydrogen or hydroxyl tissue.
What is the normal range of blood pH?
Normally, blood pH varies in a narrow range from 7.35 to 7.45.
What property of water prevents rapid changes in body temperature?
The high heat capacity of water prevnets rapid changes in body temperature.
Which is a proton donor - an acid or base?
Acids are proton donors.
Is a pH of 11 acidic or basic?
A pH of 11 is basic.
Biochemistry is "wet" chemistry. What does this statement mean?
All chemcal reactions in the body take place in a watery environment.
Salts are electrolytes. What does that mean?
They conduct and electrical current when dissolved in water.
What are polymers?
Chainlike molecules made of many similar or repeating units (monomers), which are joined together by dehydration synthesis.
What are monomers?
A molecule of low molecular weight capable of reacting with identical or different molecules of low molecular weight to form a polymer.
What is a functional group?
Many organic molecules are very large molecules, but their interactions with other molecules typically involve only small reactive parts of their structure called functional groups (acid groups, amines, and others.)
Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in formation and breakdown of organic molecules.
Polymers and monomers are joined together by dehydrations synthesis. During dehydrations synthesis a hydrogen atom is removed from one monomer and a hydroxy group (OH) is removed from the monomer it is to be joint with. As a covelent bond unites the monomers, a water molecule is released. This removal of the water molecule at the bond site occurs each time a monomer is added to the growing polymer chain.
When ploymers must be broken down or digested to their monomers, the reverse process called hydrolysis occurs. As a water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is borken, releasing themonomers.
What are carbohydrates?
They include sugar, starches, contain carbon, hydrogen an oxygen.
How are carbohydrates classified?
They are classified according to size and solubility in water as monosaccharieds, disaccharides, or polysaccharide.
One sugar. (mono = one) (saccharide = sugar).
Double sugars, formed when two simple sugars are jointed by dehydration synthesis; as a water molecule is lost as the bond form.
Long, branching chaines of linked simple sugards are called polysaccharides. (poly = many) (saccharides = sugar).
What are the most important monosaccharides?
Glucose, Furctose, galactose, ribose and deoxyribose.
What is called the universal cellular fuel?
Fructose and glactose are converted to ________________ for use by body cells?
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