Design I - Vocabulary

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MichelleZahn
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Design I - Vocabulary
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2010-05-24 13:24:09
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BOMI Design Maintenance RPA
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Vocabulary for Design I
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  1. Easement
    A right of one party to lawfully use the land of another for a beneficial purpose. Easements can be created expreslly in a written instrument or by implication, by necessity, or by prescription.
  2. Punch List
    A list of deficiencies in construction compiled by the project manager or architect near the end of a job. The list should record all incomplete, missing, or substandard items, and the action to be taken by the contractor to correct each problem.
  3. Deferred Maintenance
    Deterioration requring increased levels of maintenance and repairs, brought about by postponing routine maintenance and repairs, often for several years.
  4. Primary Function Area
    Any area where major activity takes place, including stores, offices, and work areas.
  5. Path of Travel
    A continuous route from the entrance to a primary function area.
  6. As-Built Drawings
    An accurate record of th eplacement of construction components and the routing of other components such as cables, pipes, and ducts that indicate how a building was actaully built, rather than how it was designed to be built. As-built drawings are submitted by each trade (e.g., mechanical, electrical). They document a building's systems and components, as observed and documented in the field.
  7. Surety Bonds
    An agreement under which the party called the surety agrees to answer another party called the obligee (the owner) for the debt, default, or failure to fulfill obligations of a third party called the principal (the contractor).
  8. Commissioning
    The initial start-up and verification of proper operation of the original design specification.
  9. Conduction
    The direct flow of heat through a material resulting from physical contact.
  10. Convection
    The transfer of heat in a fluid, such as air, caused by the movement of the heated fluid.
  11. Radiation
    The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves from a warm substance to a cooler substance without heating the medium in between.
  12. R-Value
    A numerical index that indicates the resistance of a material to heat passing through it (insulating value).
  13. Mortar
    A mixture of lime and/or pulverized clay (cement) with very fine sand and water, used with a binding agent.
  14. Concrete
    An artificial stone made by binding together particles of aggregate with a paste made of cement and water.
  15. Cold Joint
    A defined interface between concrete poured at two different times.
  16. Spalling
    A defect that occurs when pieces of masonry or brick split or flake off a wall surface.
  17. Epoxies
    A thermosetting resin that cures by adding a hardener or catalyst.
  18. pH
    A measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A pH under 7.0 indicates acidity, a pH greater than 7.0 indicates alkalinity.
  19. Galvanic Action
    The wasting away effect that occurs when two dissimilar metals are in contact in the presence of an electrolyte or an electric current.
  20. Electrolyte
    A substance that dissolves in water to form particles with positive and negative electric charges (ions), making the water a conductor of electric current.
  21. Anode
    A metal surface that emits positively charged ions transferred to a cathode through an electrolyte.
  22. Cathode
    An area along a metal surface that attracts electrons from an anode. The cathode area controls how fast the metal loss occurs at the anode.
  23. Noble
    Having low chemical reactivity; chemically inert or inactive.
  24. Gypsum
    A soft, hydrous calcium sulfate used in construction materials such as wallboard and sheathing.
  25. Load
    A fgorce, such as weight, commonly measured in pounds, that a building must sustain.
  26. Leeward
    Being in or facing the direction toward which the wind is blowing.
  27. Stress
    The load per square inch that acts against an object.
  28. Joists
    Beams ranged parallel from wall to wall in a structure to support a floor or ceiling.
  29. Curtain Wall
    An external nonload-bearing wallwhich is intended to separate the exterior and interior environments and which is fixed to the external buiding frame.
  30. Plywood
    A buildnig material made by laminating several thin layers of wood together.
  31. Silt
    Loose sedimentary soil with small rock particles.
  32. Clay
    Soil composed of microscopically small mineral particles, flattened and fitting closesly together.
  33. Peat
    Turf that is partially carbonized vegetable tissue formed by partial decomposition in water of various plants.
  34. Loam
    A soil comsisting of a friable mixture of varying proportions of clay, silt, and sand.
  35. Spalling
    A defect that occurs when pieces of masonry or brick split or flake off a wall surface.
  36. Thermal
    Of, relating to, or caused by heat.
  37. Sash
    The framework in which panes of glass are sent in a window or door. Also called a glazing panel.
  38. Weatherstripping
    Metal or plastic material used in thin strips to ensure a weathertight seal (for example, where sashes and jams or sills come together).
  39. Stack Effect
    An air filtration pattern in a building where air enters lower floors, rises within the building, and exits from upper floors due to the natural rising of warmer air; occurs as a result of pressure differences created by a building's air handling system, the wind, and temperature differences.
  40. Leeward
    Being in or facing the direction toward which the wind is blowing.
  41. U-Value
    The measure of heat conductivity of a material or structural unit, expressed as BTU per square foot per degree difference per hour; lower U-values provide greater resistance to heat transmissions.
  42. R-Value
    A measure of thermal resistance of a specific material; the higher the R-Value, the greater the resistance.
  43. Glazing
    The glass panels in window frames.
  44. Limestone
    A rock that is formed chiefly by accumulation of organic remains (as shells or coral), consists mainly of calcium carbonate, is extensively used in building, and yields lime when burned.
  45. Batt
    A blanket of thermal insulation (as fiberglass).
  46. Sill
    The horizontal member forming the bottom of a window or exterior door frame. Also called a sill plate.
  47. Bitumen
    The generic term for a semisolid mixture of complex hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or coal after distillation. In the roofing industry, there are two basic bitumens: asphalt and coal-tar pitch.
  48. Elastomeric
    Having elastic properties; capable of expanding or contracting with the surfaces to which the subject material is applied without rupturing.
  49. Polymer
    A chemical compound or mixture of compounds formed by polymerization (a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form larger molecules) and consisting essentially of repating structural units.
  50. Thermoplastic
    Capable of softening or fusing when heated and of hardening again when cooled.
  51. Flashing
    Various connecting devices that seal roofing memberane joints at expansion joints, drains, gravel-stops and other places where the membrane ends.

  52. Demising Walls
    Slab-to-slab partitions, generally fire-rated, that separate a tenant/occupant's space from that of neighboring tenants, departments, or companies. Also called demising partitions.
  53. Perlite and Vermiculite
    Material used for its insulating characteristics in preformed insulating boards and lightweight insulating boards and lightweight insulating concrete, or blown loose into vacant spaces between structural members.
  54. Primer
    A preliminary paint coat that, when applied to a bare surface, seals pres in the surface and improves paint adhesion.
  55. Undercoat
    The layer or layers of paint that cover a surface, build up film thickness, and furnish an even surface for the final coat.
  56. Finish Coat
    The final layer of paint that usually determines the final appearance, in terms of both color and glossiness.
  57. Sacrificial Anode
    A zinc-rich primer in which the zinc in the paint corrodes instead of the iron or steel surface to which it is applied.
  58. Galvanized Metal
    Sheet metal or iron covered with a protective coating to resist corrosion.
  59. Autoignition
    The bursting into flame of a material without a source of ignition.
  60. Teratogenic
    Of, relating to, or causing developmental malformations.
  61. VOC (Volatile Organic Compound)
    A compound that evaporates, is gaseous at room temperature, and is released from used or stored products.
  62. Oxidize
    To combine with oxygen; to dehydrogenate, especially by the action of oxygen.
  63. Soffit
    The underside of a part or member of a building (as of an overhang or staircase); especially the interior curve of an arch.
  64. Jute
    The glossy fiber of either of two Asian plants used chiefly for sacking, burlap, and twine, but also as a carpet backing.

  65. Delamination
    Separation into constitutent layers.
  66. IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)
    The overall quality of air in an enclosed space, accounting for factors such as temperature, humidity, odor, clarity, and absence of toxins or other agents that impair human health.
  67. Sensible Heat
    Heat that, when added to or removed from a particular substance, causes a change in temperature, but not a change of state.
  68. Latent Heat
    Heat that, when added to or removed from a particular substance, changes the state of the substance (e.g., solid to liquid, liquid to gas) without changing its temperature.
  69. Dry-Bulb Temperature
    The temperature of air as measured by an ordinary thermometer.
  70. Wet-Bulb Temperature
    A temperature measurement that takes into consideration the moisture content of the air.
  71. Relative Humidity
    The ratio of the actual amount of water in the air compared to the maximum amount of water that the air could hold at the same temperature.
  72. Dew Point
    The temperature at which air is fully saturated with moisture and condensation can occur.
  73. BTU (British Thermal Unit)
    A measurement expressing the quantity of heat possessed by an object. One BTU is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
  74. Ton of Refrigeration
    A means of expressing cooling capacity. ONe ton equals 12,000 BTU per hour (or 288,000 BTU/day or 200 BTU/minute) of cooling.
  75. U-Value
    The measure of heat conductivity of a material or structural unit, expressed as BTU per square foot or degrees difference per hour. Lower U-Values provide greater resistance to heat transmissions.
  76. R-Value
    A measure of the thermal resistance of a specific material. Under steady conditions, the mean temperature difference between the two surfaces separated by the insulation. The higher the R-Value, the greater the resistance.
  77. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature)
    The average temperature of all the surfaces to which a person is exposed, exchanging infrared radiation.
  78. Load
    The resistance that a system must overcome to accomplish the job it was designed to do.
  79. Zoning
    The division fo a building's cooling and heatin gsystems into sections that permit independent control of temperatures from one area to another.
  80. Zone
    A distinct area of space to which conditioned air is delivered.
  81. Return Air
    Air pulled from a space and returned to the central air-conditioning plant for reconditioning.
  82. Plenum
    The pace between acoustical tile in a suspended ceiling and the underside of the floor above.
  83. Ventilation
    Movement of air into a building or from one space to another space within a building, using a fan.
  84. Infiltration
    The uncontrolled leakage of unconditioned air into a building; generally caused by wind loads, or by a negatively pressured building.
  85. Static Pressure
    The total pressure created by the fan velocity pressure, measured in inches of water (Pa).
  86. Economizer Mode
    A setting within an air-handling system that allows the use of cool outside air or water an less mechanical cooling.
  87. Enthalpy
    The total heat content of the air as measured by its temperature and humidity.
  88. SBS (Sick Building Syndrome)
    The general discomfort, adverse reactions, or nonspecific sickness that ppear to be linked to the time people spend in a particular building. Symptoms may include headaches, rashes, burning, teary eyes, or other irritations.
  89. BRI (Building-Related Illness)
    Specific, diagnosible illness whose symptoms can be identified and whose cause is directly attributed to airborne building pollutants (e.g., Legionnaires' disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis).
  90. Comfort Zone
    The temperature, humidity, and air cleanliness range within which one is comfortable.
  91. Plenum
    The space between acoustical tile in a suspended ceiling and the underside of the floor above.
  92. Asbestos
    The generic name for a number of naturally occurring, hydrated mineral silicates with a unique fibrous structure known for fire resistant qualities.
  93. Louver
    A finned or vaned device for controlling the flow of air.

  94. Gauge Pressure
    A gas or liquid pressure reading (read as psig, or pounds per square inch gauge) that factors in the 14.7 psia, so a reading of zero on the gauge is equivalent to atmospheric pressure.
  95. Static Pressure
    The total pressure diminished by the fan velocity pressure.
  96. Velocity Pressure
    Pressure that is created when air moves in one direction.
  97. Manometer
    An instrument for measuring the pressure of gases and vapors.

  98. Terminal Device
    The end point, where the air dumps into the room.
  99. Diffuser
    An outlet that spreads and circulates the flow of air from an HVAC system over a large area of a room.
  100. Condensate
    A product of condensation, espeically a liquid obtained by condensation of a gas or vapor.
  101. Baffle
    A device (as a plate, wall, or screen) to deflect, check, or regulate flow or passage (as a fluid, light, or sound).
  102. Micron
    A unit of measure equal to a micrometer (one-millionth of a meter).
  103. Stack Effect
    An air filtration pattern in a building where air enters lower floors, rises within the building, and exits from upper floors due to the antural rising of warmer air. It occurs as a result of pressure differences created by a building's air-handling system, the wind, and temperature differences.
  104. Ammonia
    A pungent colorless gaseous alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen NH3 that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure.
  105. Ozone
    A triatomic very reactive form of oxygen that is a bluish irritating gas of a pungent odor, that is a major air pollutant in the lower atmosphere, but a beneficial component of the upper atmosphere, and that is used for oxidizing, bleaching, disinfecting, and deodorizing.
  106. Retrofit
    Renovation of an existing system to update outmoded features to current standards of usability and code compliance.
  107. Heat Exchanger
    A device specifically designed to transfer heat between two physically separated fluids.
  108. Hermetic
    Sealed
  109. Inlet Guide Vanes
    A device used for capacity control on centrifugal compressors. The vanes are located in front of the impeller and regulate the flow of refrigerant into it.

  110. Sump
    A pit or reservoir serving as a drain or receptacle for liquids.
  111. Fill
    The part of a cooling tower over which water is distributed and exposed to outside air to cool through evaporation. Most fill is composed of FRP, PVC, and wood.

  112. Crossflow
    Air moving across water. In some cooling towers, the water falls down vertically while the air moves horizontally across the water.

  113. Counterflow
    Air moving against water. In some cooling towers, the water falls down vertically while the air moves up vertically against the water.

  114. Heat Pump
    An electric device that uses a compressor to drive refrigeration cycles to move heat from one medium to another. A device capable of providing heating or cooling by reversing its operation.
  115. COP (Coefficient of Performance)
    The ratio of useful heating or cooling provided by a heat pump or air-conditioning system to the energy consumed by the system in delivering the heating or cooling; measured in consistent units for a specific temperature. Higher COPs indicate higher system efficiencies.
  116. Lithium Bromide
    The absorbent used in absorption refrigeration systems; a nontoxic salt solution with water.
  117. Combustion
    A chemical process (burning) that requires fuel, oxygen, and heat to be present.
  118. Firetube Boiler
    • A boiler in which the hot gases from combustion pass through tubes surrounded by water or steam.
  119. Watertube Boiler
    A boiler in which water or steam passes through tubes surrounded by hot gases from combustion.

  120. Hydronics
    The transfer of heat using a circulating fluid such as water.
  121. Thermostatic Bypass
    A device that allows air to exit the steam trap.
  122. Caustic Embrittlement
    The hardening of metal that takes away some of its tensile strength. It is often caused by high pH.
  123. Blowdown
    The discharge of water from a boiler that contains a high proportion of dissolved solids.
  124. Amine
    Any of a class of basic organic compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of hydrogen with one or more monovalent hydrocarbon radicals.
  125. Pitting Corrosion
    The corrosion of metal in very small areas, resulting in holes that may completely penetrate the metal.

  126. Rectifier
    An electrical device used to convert alternating current to direct current.
  127. Heat Pump
    An electric device that uses a compressor to drive refrigeration cycles to move heat from one medium to another. A device capable of providing heating or cooling by reversing its operation.

  128. COP (Coefficient of Performance)
    The ratio of useful heating or cooling provided by a system to the energy consumed by the system in delivering the heating or cooling; in consistent units for a specific temperature. Higher COPs indicate higher system efficiencies.
  129. Diffuser
    An outlet that spreads and circulates the flow of air from an HVAC system over a large area of a room.

  130. Plenum
    An air-filled space in a structure, especially one that receives air from a blower for distribution.
  131. Dry-Bulb Temperature
    The temperature of air as measured by an ordinary thermometer.
  132. Soffit
    The underside of a part or member of a building (as of an overhang or staircase); especially the intrados of an arch.

  133. Coaxial Cable
    • A combination of single wire surrounded by insulation and a woven metal braid that shields against electromagnetic noise.
  134. Enthalpy
    The total heat content of a substance, such as air, measuring its sum total energy and consisting of dry-bulb temperature plus wet-bulb temperature.
  135. Dead Band
    A preset temperature range for which neither heating nor cooling is supplied. In this temperature range, the HVAC system provides ventilation only.
  136. Infrared
    Situated outside the visible spectrum at its red end (having a wavelength between about 700 nanometers and 1 millimeter).
  137. Troubleshooting
    The diagnostic process used to determine the cause of abnormal conditions in equipment.
  138. Silica
    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) occurring in crystalline, amorphous, and impure forms (as in quartz, opal, and sand respectively).

  139. Cycles of Concentration
    The ratio of the concentration of a chemical or mineral in the recirculating water to its concentration in the makeup water.
  140. Blowdown
    The periodic flushing of dissolved and suspended solids from an open recirculating water system.
  141. Ion Exchange
    A process whereby ions in solution are interchanged by a reactive material.
  142. Bleedoff
    The removal of water from a cooling tower to reduce the concentrated solids in an air conditioning cooling tower.
  143. Anode
    A metal surface that emits positively charged ions transferred to a cathode through an electrolyte. Picture below is of a zinc anode.

  144. Cathode
    An area along a metal surface that attracts electrons from an anode. The cathode area controls how fast the metal loss occurs at the anode.
  145. Aerobic
    Living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen.
  146. Anaerobic
    Living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen.
  147. Plumbing
    An interior water distribution system.
  148. Fixture
    A device used to control the flow and use of water (for example, faucets, toilets, and hose connections).
  149. Head Pressure
    The higher pressure point in a body of fluids.
  150. Water Closet
    A compartment or room with a toilet.
  151. Centrifugal
    Acting or proceeding in a direction away from a center or axis.
  152. Hydropneumatic Pressure System
    A system where water is pumped from a water supply into a pressure tank for storage.
  153. Check Valve
    A valve designed to allow liquid or gas to flow in one direction only.
  154. Globe Valve
    A valve used primarily in air and steam systems to control the rate of flow.

  155. Gate Valve
    A valve having two inclined seats between which teh valve wedges down in closing.

  156. Butterfly Valve
    A valve consisting of two semicircular clappers hinged to a cross rib that permits fluid flow in only one direction, or a valve in a pipe consisting of a disk turning on a bisecting axis.

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