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The largest modern group of gymnosperms is?
These groups include?
The trees produce?
- Phylum Coniferophyta (conifers)
- This group includes pines, cedars, firs, etc. These trees produce both male and female cones
Describe the female cone processes
1. In a female cone, meiosis produces four megaspores.
2. Three of these cells disintegrate, just as in animals. The fourth megaspore divides (by mitosis) to produce haploid tissue, the female gametophyte.
3. In time, two eggs develop within archegonia inside this gametophyte tissue.
4.The gametophyte tissue containing eggs is surrounded by sporophyte tissue. Together, this gametophyte and sporophyte tissue makes up the ovule.
Describe the male cone processes
1. In the male cone, meiosis produces many small pollen grains, also called microspores. These are male ganetophytes.
2. Each pollen grain contains a sperm. Pollen falls out of the male cone in great amounts
3. The male cones then fall off the tree and disintegrate
How are conifer pollen grains dispersed?
By the wind
Describe the processes of pollination when a pollen grain finds its way to a female cone.
- Pollination occurs
- 1. The pollen grain grows a pollen tube that delivers the sperm to the egg.
- 2. After fertilization, the zygote matures within the ovule, and the ovule becomes a seed.
- 3. In the seed, the female gametophyte tissue around the zygote is rich in food reserves, and nourishes the zygote
- 4. By now, the female cone has grown significantly, and is the pine cone many of us know.
Give two other names for the male gametophyte
- 1. pollen grain
- 2. microspores
How are conifer seeds dispersed? Explain Why
Wind, because they are small/light and prominent wing so that it allows the seeds to be easily carried away by a breeze
Which generation is dominant in conifers?
Is the majority of a cone made of diploid or haploid tissue? Explain
Haploid? Because.. I DONT KNOW.
In a angiosperm plant , meiosis in the ovary produces what? and meiosis in the anthers produces what?
Meiosis in the ovary produces a functional megaspores, and meiosis in the anthers produces microspores
Parts of a flower?
Sepal, petal, corolla, stigma, style, ovary, carpel, ovules, anther, filament, stamen
Anther: The anther is part of the stamen and produces the pollen.
Corolla: The whorl of petals is called the corolla.
Filament: The filament provides support for the anther in the stamen.
Ovary: The ovary houses the ovules and will become the fruit after pollination.
Ovule: The ovules contain egg cells and become the seeds after pollination.
Petal: The petal is designed to attract pollinators to the flower and protect the stamen and pistil. Many have patterns that can be seen in ultraviolet light by bees and other insects. These indicate where the nectar is located.
Sepal: Sepals are found on the outside of the flower in a whorl. They are usually green. The group of sepals is called the calyx.
Stamen: The stamen is the male reproductive organ in the plant. It consists of the anther and filament.
Stigma: The stigma is the sticky surface where pollen lands and is collected to fertilize the ovules.
Style: The style is part of the pistil and holds the stigma above the ovary.
Carpel: the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels. The carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally.
Where does meiosis occur in a flower?
- ALSO, meisois occurs inside the anther producing microspores
How is the female gametophyte produced in a flower?
Meiosis produces four megaspores, three of which disintegrate. The remainign megaspore divides (by mitosis) to produce the female gametophyte
What is an embryo sac?
The female gametophyte is a sac, called the embryo sac, contiang a number of nuclei
What is the polar nuclei?
The other two nuclei in th emiddle of the embryo sac are called polar nuclei.
Whats the difference with microspores in angiosperms and gymnosperms pollen?
In angiospoerms, each microspore contains two sperm, (in contrast to one per microspore in gymnopsperm pollen
What is the common name for a microspore?
Where does pollinatino occur in a flower?
The microspores land on the flower's stigma and pollination occurs
What is endosperm?
The part of a seed that acts as a food store for the developing plant embryo, usually containing starch with protein and other nutrients.
What is the function of endosperm
Endosperm is the albumin tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This makes endosperm an important source of nutrition in human diet as well. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread, while barley endosperm is the main source for beer production. Other examples for edible endosperm are coconut "meat", popcorn and banana.
What is double fertilization?
Double fertilization refers to a process in which two spermcells fertilize cells in the ovary
What is the equivalent of endosperm in a conifer?
What are cotyledons?
What makes xylem turn red?
What do xylem and phloem transport?
Xylem transports water and minerals, phloem transports water and carbohydrates from photosynthesis
What makes up vascular bundles in plants?
xylem and phloem
Wher edo the minerals transported by the xylem come from?
What are these? Label them and the differences.
Where is the xylem
Left = monocot stem section
right: eudicot stem section
The maroon dots are the xylem
1. flower petals
2. # of cotyledons = MONOCOT 1, EUDICOT 2
3. pattern of leaf venation
4. arrangement of vascular bundles in stem
What are 5 ways animals and such can attract to flowers?
- 1. odour
- 2. pattern
- 3. colour
- 4. warmth
- 5. sexual mimericky
What are the 4 pollination strategies and give some common feature sof each one.
1. wind pollination - small/unscented but clustered flowers, expanded stigmas, dry light pollen
2. fly pollination - large, fowl odours, dark/dull colours
3. bird pollination - bright red, odourless, deep throat, clustered together, dusted with pollen
4. bee polllination - yellow/blue, mechanically strong, deep floal tubes, anthers hidden
What is the biological defininition of the term "fruit"?
- Any fleshy structure containing seeds
- --> Ovaries swell up and surround the seed
Name and briefly explain three seed dispersal strategies you have observed
1. Animal dispersal - ex. wild grape , eating by animals and hard seeds pass through intestinal canals. Ex. Acorn too collected/stored by animals
2. wind dispersal - maple, ash basswood, yellow goatsheard
3. water dispersal - coconut falls onto beach, and is washed away by waves, or water plantain cariried by streams
What are some evolutionary trends in the kingdom plantae?
1. increased dominance of the sporophyte generation
2. plants are thought to have evolved from mutlicaellular green algae that lived in damp conditions
3. Plants hvae become increasingly adapted to life on land. They developed roots, stems, and leaves with a vascular system. Life cycle changed from haploid to diploid dominance.
4. The ferns are seedless vascular plant that reproduce vis spores.