psych 10-2

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psych 10-2
2012-01-31 06:55:07

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  1. Neo-Freudians
    thinkers who agreed with the basis of Freud's psychoanalytic theory, but changed and adapted the theory to incorporate their own beliefs, ideas and theories.
  2. NEO-PI-R
    is a psychological personality inventory; a 240-item measure of the Five Factor Model: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Measures the Big Five.
  3. Neurotic trends
    normal strivings exaggerated by inner conflict to the point where they fragment the self. Unlike normal strivings, these seek a particular object not because doing so is satisfying but in order to repress basic anxiety; for that reason they gradually become techniques or solutions for dealing with life in general. The two most frequent are strivings for affection (and a corresponding incapacity to love or to accept affection as genuine) and strivings for power and control (prestige, possessions, etc.); both involve a discharge of unconscious hostility. Their compulsivity makes them indiscriminate and anxiety-arousing when frustrated. Also, they shape one's image of oneself and create subsidiary needs, feelings, inhibitions, sources of pride, and behaviors. Symptoms arise when neurotic trends are incompatible.
  4. Objective tests
    is a psychological test that measures an individual's characteristics in a way that is independent of rater bias or the examiner's own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions that are marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in the same way that examinations are administered.
  5. Oedipus/Electra complex
  6. Oral Stage
    the first psychosexual development stage wherein the mouth of the infant is his or her primary erogenous zone.
  7. Penis-envy
    Freud considered this realization a defining moment in the development of gender and sexual identity for women. According to Freud, the parallel reaction in boys to the realization that girls do not have a penis is castration anxiety. In contemporary culture, the term sometimes refers inexactly or metaphorically to women who are presumed to wish they were men.[1]
  8. Persona
    The aspect of someone's character that is presented to or perceived by others.
  9. Personal unconscious
    is Carl Jung's term for the Freudian unconscious, as contrasted with the collective unconscious. Often referred to by him as "No man’s land," ; is located at the fringe of consciousness, between two worlds: "the exterior or spacial world and the interior or psychic objective world"
  10. Personality
    is a person's unique behavioral and cognitive patterns; OR, a person's unique consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
  11. Personality traits
    the unique set of characteristics and qualities that only you possess.
  12. Person-situation controversy
    This is the idea that while personality traits may be enduring, the resulting behavior in different situations is different. So this ideas suggests that traits are not good predictors of behaviors.For example, a person may have an aggressive trait, but not act aggressively in every situation they encounter, so the trait is not a good predictor.
  13. Phallic stage
    the third stage in a child's development when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure)
  14. Pleasure principle
    The instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain, expressed by the id as a basic motivating force that reduces psychic tension
  15. Projection
    The unconscious transfer of one's own desires or emotions to another person
  16. Psychoanalysis
    A system of psychological theory and therapy that aims to treat mental disorders by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind by techniques such as dream interpretation and free association
  17. Psychodynamic theories
    encompasses four major schools of thought: object relations, self-psychology, drive theory, and ego psychology.
  18. Rational individuals
    a person using reason or logic in thinking out a problem
  19. Rationalization
    the cognitive process of making something seem consistent with or based on reason.
  20. Reaction formation
    The blocking of desire by its opposite. the term Freud uses to describe the mechanism whereby the ego reacts to the impulses of the id by creating an antithetical formation that blocks repressed cathexes.
  21. Reality principle
    The ego's control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world.
  22. Reciprocal determinism
    According to Albert Bandura, a person's behavior is both influenced by and influences a person's personal factors and the environment. Bandura suggests that a person's behavior can be conditioned through the operant conditioning (use of consequences like reward and punishment); he also believes that a person's behavior can impact the environment. So it is not just that you are influenced by your environment, but that you also influence the environment around you--each impacts the other.
  23. Regression
    According to Freud there are times when people are faced with situations that are so anxiety provoking that they can't deal with it and they protect themselves by retreating to an earlier stage of development.
  24. Repression
    The unconscious exclusion of painful impulses, desires, or fears from the conscious mind.
  25. Rorschach test
    is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlyingthought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.[3] The test is named after its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach.
  26. Secondary traits
    These are characteristics seen only in certain circumstances. They must be included to provide a complete picture of human complexity.
  27. Self-actualizing tendency
    the concept was brought most fully to prominence in Abraham Maslow'shierarchy of needs theory as the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place.
  28. Self-serving bias
    occurs when people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control. This term can be seen in the common human tendency to take credit for success but to deny responsibility for failure
  29. Sublimation
    is a mature type of defence mechanism where socially unacceptable impulses or idealizations are consciously transformed into socially acceptable actions or behaviour, possibly converting the initial impulse in the long term.
  30. Superego
    According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, this term is the component of personality composed of our internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents and from society. This term works to suppress the urges of the id and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather than realistically.
  31. Thematic Apperception Test
    is a projective psychological test. Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests. Its adherents assert that the TAT taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality,motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities.
  32. Traits
    a distinguishing characteristic or quality, especially of one'spersonal nature:
  33. Unconditional positive regard
    is basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does.
  34. Unconscious
    • -the mind operating well outside the attention of the conscious mind as defined by Sigmund Freud and others
    • -an altered state of consciousness with limited conscious awareness