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what is human anatomy?
The study of the structure of the body.
cell biology with electron microscope.
-with naked eye
Gross anatomy subdisciplines?
- -surface anatomy
- -surgical anatomy
- -regional anatomy
- -systemic anatomy
structure-funtction relationships (why study anatomy)?
Structural specilization (anatomy) usually relate to functional specilzations (physiology).
Atomic levels of orgination of the body?
- lCells – basic unit of structure and function
- in living organisms
- lTissues – similar cells performing
- specialized functions: epithelial, connective tissue, muscle, nervous
- lOrgans – different tissues organized into a
- structure to carry out functions, e.g., small intestine, arteries, brain,
- lOrgan systems – related organs working
- together, e.g., respiratory, cardiovascular
lOrganism – the entire body
Characteristics of all living organisms?
- lOrganization, e.g., cell, tissue, organ,
- organ system levels
- lMetabolism – chemical reactions in an
- organism, breaking down and building molecules
lGrowth and Development
- lResponsiveness – sensitivity and reaction to
lRegulation – homeostasis (physiology)
Eleven Organ Systems?
- system Lymphatic system
Skeletal system Respiratory system
Muscular system Digestive system
Nervous system Urinary system
Endocrine system Reproductive sys.
lAnterior (ventral) – posterior (dorsal)
- lSuperior (cranial) – inferior (caudal) (head,
- neck, trunk – axial regions)
lMedial – lateral
lSuperficial – deep
- lProximal – distal (extremities – appendicular
- lDo not use: in front, above, below, on top,
- behind, underneath, etc.
- lAnatomic position – body is upright and
- facing observer, feet are parallel and pointing forward, palms are facing
- lThis is a standard reference
- position. Descriptions of body structures are understood to be referring to a
- body in the anatomic position.
- structures are often studied by actual or imaginary cuts through the body,
- e.g., MRI or CT scans.
- (frontal) plane: divides into anterior and posterior portions
- (cross section or horizontal) plane divides into superior and inferior portions
- (median) plane divides into right and left halves. Parasagittal divides into unequal right and left portions
- lAnatomists need to interpret sections into three dimensional shapes
- lThis is important with microscopic specimens
- lAxial region – head, neck, and trunk
- lAppendicular region – upper and lower limbs
- lBody cavities
- lCranial cavity and vertebral cavity
- lThoracic cavity
- lAbdominopelvic cavity
- lSerous membranes – line body cavities closed to the outside
- lMucous membranes – line body cavities open to the outside
- lCT scans (computed tomography) [plane?] lAngiography
- lMRI (magnetic resonance imaging) [plane?]
- lPET (positron emission tomography)