bio 31

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bio 31
2012-01-31 08:52:48

test study
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  1. what is human anatomy?
    The study of the structure of the body.
  2. Cytology
    cell biology with electron microscope.
  3. histology?
    tissues (LM)
  4. Gross anatomy?
    -with naked eye
  5. Gross anatomy subdisciplines?
    • -surface anatomy
    • -surgical anatomy
    • -regional anatomy
    • -systemic anatomy
  6. structure-funtction relationships (why study anatomy)?
    Structural specilization (anatomy) usually relate to functional specilzations (physiology).
  7. Atomic levels of orgination of the body?
    • lCells – basic unit of structure and function
    • in living organisms

    • lTissues – similar cells performing
    • specialized functions: epithelial, connective tissue, muscle, nervous

    • lOrgans – different tissues organized into a
    • structure to carry out functions, e.g., small intestine, arteries, brain,
    • kidney

    • lOrgan systems – related organs working
    • together, e.g., respiratory, cardiovascular

    lOrganism – the entire body
  8. Characteristics of all living organisms?
    • lOrganization, e.g., cell, tissue, organ,
    • organ system levels

    • lMetabolism – chemical reactions in an
    • organism, breaking down and building molecules

    lGrowth and Development

    • lResponsiveness – sensitivity and reaction to
    • stimuli

    lRegulation – homeostasis (physiology)

  9. Eleven Organ Systems?
    • Integumentary
    • system Lymphatic system

    Skeletal system Respiratory system

    Muscular system Digestive system

    Nervous system Urinary system

    Endocrine system Reproductive sys.

    Cardiovascular system
  10. Anatomic directions
    lAnterior (ventral) – posterior (dorsal)

    • lSuperior (cranial) – inferior (caudal) (head,
    • neck, trunk – axial regions)

    lMedial – lateral

    lSuperficial – deep

    • lProximal – distal (extremities – appendicular
    • regions)


    • lDo not use: in front, above, below, on top,
    • behind, underneath, etc.
  11. Anatomic postion?
    • lAnatomic position – body is upright and
    • facing observer, feet are parallel and pointing forward, palms are facing
    • forward.

    • lThis is a standard reference
    • position. Descriptions of body structures are understood to be referring to a
    • body in the anatomic position.
  12. sections/planes?
    • lInternal
    • structures are often studied by actual or imaginary cuts through the body,
    • e.g., MRI or CT scans.

    • lCoronal
    • (frontal) plane: divides into anterior and posterior portions

    • lTransverse
    • (cross section or horizontal) plane divides into superior and inferior portions

    • Sagittal
    • (median) plane divides into right and left halves. Parasagittal divides into unequal right and left portions
  13. 3d reconstruction?
    • lAnatomists need to interpret sections into three dimensional shapes
    • lThis is important with microscopic specimens
  14. Regional anatomy
    • lAxial region – head, neck, and trunk
    • lAppendicular region – upper and lower limbs
    • lBody cavities
    • lCranial cavity and vertebral cavity
    • lThoracic cavity
    • lAbdominopelvic cavity
    • lSerous membranes – line body cavities closed to the outside
    • lMucous membranes – line body cavities open to the outside
  15. medical imaging?
    • lX-rays
    • lSonograms
    • lCT scans (computed tomography) [plane?] lAngiography
    • lMRI (magnetic resonance imaging) [plane?]
    • lPET (positron emission tomography)