Card Set Information
what is human anatomy?
The study of the structure of the body.
cell biology with electron microscope.
-with naked eye
Gross anatomy subdisciplines?
structure-funtction relationships (why study anatomy)?
Structural specilization (anatomy) usually relate to functional specilzations (physiology).
Atomic levels of orgination of the body?
lCells – basic unit of structure and function
in living organisms
lTissues – similar cells performing
: epithelial, connective tissue, muscle, nervous
lOrgans – different tissues organized into a
structure to carry out functions, e.g., small intestine, arteries, brain,
lOrgan systems – related organs working
together, e.g., respiratory, cardiovascular
lOrganism – the entire body
Characteristics of all living organisms?
lOrganization, e.g., cell, tissue, organ,
organ system levels
lMetabolism – chemical reactions in an
organism, breaking down and building molecules
lGrowth and Development
lResponsiveness – sensitivity and reaction to
lRegulation – homeostasis (physiology)
Eleven Organ Systems?
system Lymphatic system
Skeletal system Respiratory system
Muscular system Digestive system
Nervous system Urinary system
Endocrine system Reproductive sys.
lAnterior (ventral) – posterior (dorsal)
lSuperior (cranial) – inferior (caudal) (head,
neck, trunk – axial regions)
lMedial – lateral
lSuperficial – deep
lProximal – distal (extremities – appendicular
lDo not use
: in front, above, below, on top,
behind, underneath, etc.
lAnatomic position – body is upright and
facing observer, feet are parallel and pointing forward, palms are facing
lThis is a standard reference
position. Descriptions of body structures are understood to be referring to a
body in the anatomic position.
structures are often studied by actual or imaginary cuts through the body,
e.g., MRI or CT scans.
: divides into anterior and posterior portions
(cross section or horizontal) plane divides into superior and inferior portions
(median) plane divides into right and left halves. Parasagittal divides into unequal right and left portions
Anatomists need to interpret sections into three dimensional shapes
This is important with microscopic specimens
Axial region – head, neck, and trunk
region – upper and lower limbs
Cranial cavity and vertebral cavity
Serous membranes – line body cavities closed to the outside
Mucous membranes – line body cavities open to the outside
CT scans (computed tomography) [plane?]
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) [plane?]
PET (positron emission tomography)