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  1. Microbiology
    The study of living things to small to be seen without magnificatoin
  2. microorganisms
    germs or viruses, microsopic organisms
  3. viruses
    noncelluar, parascitic, protein-coated gentic elements that can infect other living things
  4. organisms without a true nucleus
  5. organisms with a true nucleus
  6. ubiquity
    found everywhere, large numbers
  7. bacteria preformed this long before plants
  8. way humans use bacteria
    bake, cheese, wound healing, beer
  9. biotehnology
    humans manipulate microorganisms to make products in an industrail setting
  10. genetic engineering
    GMOs, create new products and genetically modify organisms
  11. Recombinante DNA technology
    allows microbes to be engireered to synthesize disireable proteins(i.e. drugs, hormones, and enzymes)
  12. Bioremediation
    • Øintroducing microbes in to the environment to restore stability or clean up toxic pollutants
    • Oil spillsl
    • Chemical spillsl
    • Water and
    • sewage treatment
  13. Pathogens
    Ødisease-causing organisms
  14. Other diseases previously not linked to microorganisms now are
    gastric ulcers, certain cancers, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, obsessive compulsive disorder, coronary artery disease)
  15. lProkaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells
    •Prokaryotic cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells•Prokaryotic cells lack many cell structures such as organelles •All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but only some eukaryotes are
  16. ØViruses
    Not independently living - acellular organismsØMuch simpler than cells- basically a small amount of DNA or RNA wrapped in protein and sometimes by a lipid membraneØIndividuals are called a virus particle or virion ØDepend on the infected cell’s machinery to multiply and disperse
  17. Robert Hooke
    Coined the term cell
  18. Joseph Lister
    aseptic technique
  19. Louis Pasteur
    •Pasteurization•The Germ Theory of Disease•Vaccination
  20. lRobert Koch
    verified the germ theory
  21. What is the germ theory of disease?
    lMicrobes (germs) cause disease and specific microbes cause specific diseases.
  22. . Who proved this theory?
    lRobert Koch in the late 1870's.
  23. Ø3. What disease was he studying?
    lanthrax - disease of cattle/sheep
  24. Ø4. What was his experimental method?
    lHe observed that the same microbes were present in all blood samples of infected animals. He isolated and cultivated these microbes (Bacillus anthracis ). He then injected a healthy animal with the cultured bacteria & that animal became infected with anthrax & its blood sample showed the same microbes as the originally infected animals.
  25. Ø5. What did his experiments prove?
    lParticular microbes cause particular diseases.
  26. Ø6. What are Koch's 4 Postulates?
    l1. The causative agent must be present in every individual with the disease.l2. The causative agent must be isolated & grown in pure culture (how did he invent pure cultures? with Frau Hesse's help, he developed the agar plate method.)l3. The pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into an experimental animal.l4. The causative agent must be reisolated from the experimental animal & reidentified in pure culture.
  27. Microbial nomenclature-
    naming microorganisms
  28. Taxonomy
    classifying living things
  29. Carl von Linné
  30. binomial system of nomenclature
    genus name followed by the species name
  31. Phylogeny
    the degree of relatedness between groups of living things
  32. evolution- Two preconceptions:
    • •All new species originate from preexisting species
    • •Closely related organisms have similar features because they evolved from a common ancestor
Card Set:
2012-01-30 21:51:56

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