Chapter 20 Terms

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  1. George W. Plunkett
    • ward boss of Manhattan's Fifteenth Assembly District, honest boodle, political machine boss
    • recieved his pay from boodle- money made from defrauding the public
  2. New Immigration
    • in the 1800s, immmigrants from southern and eastern Europe that began to arrive in the U.S. (Russian/ Polish Jews)
    • some fled famine of disease, some wanted jobs and more money, often manipulated as strike breakers
  3. Zone of Emergence
    • an income graded band of those on their way up that curled around the slums
    • contained 2nd generation city dweller, factory-workers, skilled laborers, and pro mechanics
    • lived better than others, no longer in poverty
  4. Frank Sprague
    • a naval engineer, installed the first electric trolley in Richmond, VA
    • 2 times as fast as horses, renewed subways
    • *travel revolution*
  5. John/ Washington Roebling
    • built the Brooklyn Bridge to join NYC w/ Brooklyn
    • showed urbanization and growth and soon other cities followed suit
    • first suspension bridge
  6. Louis Sullivan
    • helped rebuild Chicago promising great skyscrapers
    • like the Wain Wright building, made towerign structures that symbolized modern industry
  7. Jacob Riis
    was a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. He endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. Additionally, as one of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography, he is considered one of the fathers of photography due to his discovery of the use of flash in photography.[1] While living in New York, Riis experienced poverty and became a police reporter writing about the quality of life in the slums. He attempted to alleviate the bad living conditions of poor people by exposing their traditionalism to middle class ridicule.
  8. Dumbbell Tenaments
    • designed by James E. Wave, these new tenaments met the new window requirement, gave shafts for air and light, and housed up to 16 families
    • --> air shafts filled with trash --> fire --> worse than before
  9. Political Machine
    • operated similarly to a corporation, the boss looked on politics as a business
    • machines began as fraternal and charitable organizations and over the years gained political power
    • local committeemen worked for boss to get votes and help direct the machine, reqarded voters with crude gifts like informal form of welfare
  10. William Tweed
    boss that reigned 1860s to 1870s, swindled NY out of a fortune, built three-stroy court house in NY originally budgeted at $250,000 and spent more than $13 mil
  11. Chinese Exclusion Act
    an act enacted by congress in 1882, banned the entry of Chines laborers and represented an important step in the drive to restrict immigration
  12. Social Gospel
    • focused on improving the conditions of society in order to save individuals
    • became centers of social activity
  13. Jane Addams
    • held most famous settlement house-community center run by women to help the poor and foreign born
    • called Jane Addam's Hull House, grew to a dozen buildings
  14. Social Stratification
    • the spread of wealth among the nation creating a larger
    • barrier between rich and poor but more middle class citizens in the middle as well
  15. Assimilation
    • immigrants assimilated slowly unlike thier children
    • children had mobility but judgement from parents and peers
  16. Victorianism
    refers to Queen Victoria, streesed orderly behavior, disciplined moralism, sobriety, industriousness, self-control, and sexual restraint- women supposed to withhold excepting procreation
  17. Women's Christian Temperance Movement
    • created by France Willard in 1874
    • became the largest women's organization in the world
    • began with trying to end alcohal sales and in turn drunkenness
    • --> promoting women's suffrage, prison reform, better working conditions, and an end to prostitution
    • *offered women opportunity to step into politics
  18. Comstock Law
    • signed by President Grant in 1873, a statute banning from the mails all materials "designed to incete lust" aka porne
    • Anthony Comstock went to work as spy for PO and made arrests
  19. Victoria Woodhull
    divorced her husband, ran for presidnet in 1872, and pressed case for sexual freedom for women
  20. McGruffey's Reader
    • a standard textbook used for grammar in schools throughout the nineteenth century
    • taught students how to learn AND how to behanve
    • -hard work, Christian ethics, and obedience to authortiy --> success and true American
  21. Plessy v Ferguson
    • supreme court case in 1896 "separate but equal"
    • --> rise in discrimintatino and increase in black illiteracy
  22. Department Store
    • sold well-made, in-expensive merchandise in standard shapes and sizes because displayed goods in separate sections
    • got fideas from shopping arcades in France but US ones were palatial, public
    • lawaway plans with deferred payments and free delivery/ returns
    • ---->began to socialize America
  23. Chain Store
    • spread the culture of consumption w/out frills, cateredc to working class and worked on chas-and-carry basis
    • bought in bulk to keep prices WAY down for consumers
  24. Mail-Order Houses
    started by Aaron Montgomery Ward, was system of catalogs and delivery for farmers and other consumers in far away rural areas, like Sears and Roebuck
  25. Israel Zangwill
    • playwright and wrote Broadway hit, The Melting Pot
    • saw a melting pot of races as America
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Chapter 20 Terms
history terms
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