Chapter 21 Terms

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Chapter 21 Terms
2012-01-30 19:04:01
AP American History

history terms
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  1. Gilded Age
    name given to 1880s in America by Mark Twain because just like something glided, America looked rich and prosperous on the surface but really wasn't
  2. Tom Watson
    agrarian rebel who set GA afalame in 1892, Populist
  3. Deomocrats
    • usually control HoR while Senate is controlled by Republicans, 14 Democratic states
    • support business, no radicalism, state's rights, limited gvt, Souther whites, urban political machines, immigrant voters, working poor, Catholic
  4. Republicans
    16 states, support business, condemn radicalism, federal activism to foster economic growth, Northern busineness and industry, Protestan, immigrant restriction, prohibition, English only speaking schools
  5. Stalwarts
    • people generally in the party system who favored the old spoils system, comprised half of Hayes' party.
    • people in politics for the money
  6. Half-Breeds
    those who opposed the old spoils system to certain degree and favored being in politics to help common man to some degree, still partially in politics for the money
  7. Mugwamps
    those politicians in government purely to help people, strongly opposed honest boodle, just want to help others
  8. Bloody Shirt
    symbols waved by each party (mainly Republicans to Democrats) that blamed each other for the causation of the Civil War
  9. James Garfield
    • U.S. president, assassinated while trying to catch train
    • death leads to reform movements
    • VP Chester Arthur takes over Presidency
  10. Pendleton Act
    • aka 1883 Civil Service Act, created a bipartisan civil service commision to administer competitive examinations for some federal jobs
    • --> by 1896 almost one half of all federal workers came under civil service jurisdiction
  11. McKinley Tariff
    • sponsored by Ohio senator William McKinley, raised tariffs so hight that they threatened to choke off all manufactured imports
    • twist to appease reductionists: "reciprocity" that allowed U.S. th lower tariffs if other countries did the same
    • --> not enough, national war raged over tariff rates
  12. Bimetalism
    act of mixing golds together like gold and silver generally to expand currency
  13. Greenback Party
    formed in 1874 during big dispute over greenbacks, joined by those who sought inflation of the currency, mainly farmers seeking to reduce their debts, often opposed by bankers
  14. Bland-Allison Act
    inaugurated a limited form of silver coinage but was faced by lots of opposition
  15. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
    • after pressure fo rsilver peaked, the act obligated the government to buy 4.5 million oz of silver each month
    • paper tender called "trasury notes", redeemable in gold of silver, would pay for it
    • *compromised both sides only temporarily*
  16. James Blaine
    • leader of the Half Breeds, fought off charges of corrupt dealings with RRs during the dirty election of 1884, lead Republicans, LOST
    • labeled Democrats as a party of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion" (alcohal, Catholicism, and Civil War)
  17. Grover Cleveland
    • democrat, govenor of NY, admitted to fathering illegitmate child, won the dirty election of 1884
    • *1st democrat elected president since Buchanan 1856*
    • expanded civil service, devoted to gold backed currency, economy, and efficiency
    • endorsed Interstate Commerce Act (1887), new agr. research, and federal arbitration of labor disputes, vetoed 2/3 of bills brought to him
  18. Benjamin Harrison
    • nominated by Republicans for 1888 election, won by electoral college, named "human iceberg" bc worked hard, rarelegy delegated management and truned the White House into a well-regulated office
    • helped congress to complete its most productive season including the 1st peacetime billion dollar budget
  19. State Commissions
    • starting in 1868 in MA, states established commissions to investigate and regulat industry, especially RRs
    • by end of century almost 2/3 of states had them
    • gathered and publicized info on shipping rates and business practices and furnished advice about public policy
  20. National Municipal League
    • 1st in Iowa in 1877, began because of concern of political corruption adn urban blight
    • had more than 200 brances, advanced separate city and state elections, limited contracts for utilities, and more authortiy for mayors
    • meanwhile states creating laws demanding stores close on Sunday, prohibition of alcohal, and English the language of public schools
  21. Oliver Kelley
    founded the Patrons fo Husbandry to brighten lives and expand horizons of farmers
  22. "Granger Laws"
    • laws refulating raes charged by RRs, grain elevators, and other intermediaries
    • --> Granger Cases such as Munn v Illinois
  23. Munn v Illinois
    • Supreme Court case in 1877 that upheld the right of Illinois to regulate private property so long as it was "devoted to a public use"
    • scared big corporations especially that of RRs and steel mills because menat that basically anything could be deemed "devoted to public use"
    • one of first victories of farmers!!!
  24. Interstate Commerce Commission
    • created by Congress in 1877, a federal agency that could regulate commere across state boundaries
    • had little power, but *key step to public right in regulating coporations*
  25. Southern Alliance
    • part of the "Alliance Movement," formed in TX 1875, spread under command of Dr. Charles W. Macune took command
    • planned to expand TXs network of local chapters/ suballiances into national network of State Alliance exchanges
    • exchanges pooled resources in cooperatively owned enterprises for buying and selling, milling and storing, and banking and manufacturing
    • published activites, supposed to save farmers money, FAILS
  26. Colored Farmer's Alliance and Cooperative Union
    founded in 1886, secretly operated, like other Alliance but colored, nothing really accomplished
  27. Ocala Demands
    • in 1890 members of the alliance met in Ocala FL and called on government to correct corporate manipulation
    • demanded: reduction of tariffs, abolishment of national banks, regulation of RRs, and coinage oof silver money, a federal inconme tax, and a popular election of senators
  28. Populist Party
    • aka the People's Party, labor, farm, feminist and other reform delegates *eventually lose*
    • promised to return government to the people
    • advocated subtreasury plan, unlimited coinage, expansion of money supply, direct election of senators, income tax, government ownership of RR, telegrapph, and phone
    • endorsed 8 hour day, immigration restricts, and ban on Pinkertons
    • ------> eventually mix into Democratic Party
  29. Panic of 1893
    • a "convulsion"--> rise in unemployment ---> rise in child and women labor
    • no government program to combat the derpession
    • *caused by America's economic indterdependence and the contraction of the money supply by converting back to the gold standard*
    • ---> new ideas about welfare and cahrity
  30. Coxey's Army
    • on Easter Sunday, "General" Jacob Coxey launched the "Tramp's March on Washington" petitioned for a federal program of public works as they marched on the White House
    • --> other "armies"
  31. Free Silver
    • campaigned by Silverties for the coinage of silver in which the Treasury freely minted all silver presented to it disregarding other nations
    • *symbolic protest of region and class*
  32. William Jennings Bryan
    • gave the Cross of Gold speech, gave speech for the plain people, farms, against cities, for silver and against gold
    • *educated nation, first politician to do so*
    • "You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold"
    • demonized gold standard
    • *lost bc wanted to stop immigration, appealed to black voters, absolutism language scared voters, emphasized conspiracies that weren't believable
  33. William McKinley
    • gave speeches from his front porch, promised a "full dinner pail," his campaign was engineered by Marcus Alonzo Hanna
    • *created Republican coalition*
    • big on gold standard
    • Erdman Act- government will intervene in labor strikes to prevent violence
    • Dingly Tariff- will lower tariff on any nation who lowers their tariff on the U.S.
  34. Disenfranchisement
    taking away one's voting rights; 1890, African Americans were disenfranchised by use of literary tests and poll taxes, especially in the South
  35. Gerrymandering`
    playing with political voting borders in order to keep a certain party in office
  36. Booker T. Washington
    former slave who worked to promote race relations telling blacks to work hard and earn money in order to be able to vote, organized Tuskegee Institute, preached accommodation to a racial caste system
  37. W.E.B. DuBois
    professor at Atlanta University, wrote The Souls of Black Folk, stronly opposed Washington, wanted black sto struggle and fight for equal rights and for elite blacks to rise up and vote as a band for political change
  38. NAACP
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1909, middle calss and elitist, legally challenged the Jim Crow Laws, formed with help from DuBois
  39. Imperialism
    gaining control of colonies across the world; American imperialism focused on the spread of ideas and influence rather than physical control
  40. Alfred Thayer Mahan
    Navy captain and admiral, The Influece of Sea Power Upon History in 1890, spread idea of navalism, only way to protect foreign trade markets was to build up the navy; by 1900, U.S. Navy ranked 3rd in the world
  41. Social Darwinism
    the belief that some people (WASPs) were menat by nature to survive above others; theory created by Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner
  42. William Henry Seward
    secretary of state under Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, believed that America needed to assert its supremacy in the Far East thorugh commercialism, bought Midway Islan and Alaska
  43. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    1850, shared rights with GB to all canals in Central American, secretary of state James G. Blaine wanted to cancel this treay in 1880s
  44. Pan American Union
    created by Blaine, who threaten to ban Latin American exports if they did not comply and join the PAU, Colombia, Haiti, and Venezuela resisted
  45. Venezuelan Dispute
    a 32-lb gold nugget was found on the border of Venezuela and British Guinea, both fought over whose land it was found on, US intervened, claiming Monroe Doctrine, and asserted its power in the hemisphere, convinced GB that the land was Venezuela's
  46. Hay-Paunceforte Treaty
    eased Anglo-American tensions, 1901 treaty ceded GB interest in a canal through Central American, but said that the US canal must allow ships of all nations to pass thorugh
  47. Queen Liliuokalani
    a Hawaiian nationalist who was eager to rid HI of American incluence, overthrown by American sugar planters
  48. General Valeriano Weyler
    Spanish Governor- General in Cuba who tried to end revolts in 1895 by putting half a million Cubans into "reconcentration" camps
  49. De Lome Letter
    sent by Spanish minister in Washington, Enrique Dupuy de Lome, to Cuba, intercepted by the State Departmnent and W. R. Hearst; said that the Spanish intened to crush the Cuban revolts, despite their promise to the US that they would back off
  50. William Randolph Hearst
    a pioneer of yellow journalism, eager for war with Spain, published de Lome letter in the New York Journal
  51. Yellow Journalism
    • also called sensationalist journalism
    • is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.[1] Techniques may includeexaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism.[1] By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion.
  52. USS Maine
    sunk by several explosions on Feb 15, 1898 killing 260 Americans, the US blamed the Spanish and President McKinley decided to "get ready for war" if the diplomatic solution he sought did not work
  53. Teller Ammendment
    renounced any claim to annex Cuba
  54. Admiral George Dewey
    US admiral in Spanish-American War, crushed the Spanish at Manila Bay int he Philippines, did not have troops to invade and take Manila until McKinley issued them after Dewey's success
  55. Theodore Rooselvelt
    Lt. Col. who raised a troop of coqboys and college polo players, oringinally called "Teddy's Texas Tarnatulas" and later known as "Rough Riders," beat the Spanish in battle at a cost of 1500 US troops
  56. Platt Amendment
    passed in 1902 before Cuba was granted independence, gave US the right to intervene if cuban independence or internal order was threatened
  57. Emilio Aguinaldo
    leader of Filipino forces fighting the Spanish, declared himself the president of a new Philippin republic, even though the US had laid claim to it
  58. Anti-Imperialists
    Americans (including Carnegie, Mark Twain, Grover Cleveland) who did not want to annex the Philippines but wated to expan through trade and business
  59. Filipino Insurrection
    rebels in the Philippines fought with American patrol officers after the Philippine annexation, lasted three years, cost about 230,000 lives, more of a war than a rebellion, ended in 1902 when Americans captured Anguinaldo
  60. Spheres of Influence
    European and American powers tried to claim areas in Asia where they had commercial and military interests
  61. Open Door Note
    secretary of state John Hay in 1899 sent out two open-door notes to the imperial powers: one asking them to keep their spheres of influence open to free trade, they agreed in fear that the US might side with a rival and tip the balance; the other asking them to respect Chinese territorial and administrative integrity; both letters showed US desire to maintian Asian stability and trade
  62. Boxer Rebellion
    a group of Chines nationalists, called Boxers, murdered hundreds of Christian missionaires in an attempt to get rid of the "foreign devils" in China. Europe and American sent trooops to Beijing to crush the rebellion