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  1. Matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. atoms
    protons (p+), neutrons (n0), and electrons (e-)
  3. what make up the nucleus
    protons and neutrons
  4. what surounds the nucleus
  5. how is an atom held together?
    attraction of positive protons to negative electrons
  6. elements
    Different numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in atoms create different
  7. Isotopes
    forms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
  8. orbitals-
    Electrons rotate about the nucleus in pathways
  9. Molecule
    the smallest particle of matter that can have independent existence
  10. Compounds-
    are combinations of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
  11. Chemical Bonds-
    When two or more atoms share, donate, or accept electrons
  12. Valence
    most outter shell electrons orbit in
  13. Covalent bonds-
    between atoms that share electrons, majority of molecules associated with living things are composed of single and double covalent bonds between C, H, O
  14. polar molecule
    unequal distribution of charge
  15. Polarity
    a significant property of many large molecules, influencing both reactivity and structure.
  16. nonpolar
    electrically neutral molecule
  17. ionic bond
    Electrons transferred completely from one atom to another, without sharing
  18. ions
    charged particles
  19. ionization
    Crystals with ionic bonds, when dissolved in a solvent, can separate in to charged particles
  20. Cations
    positively charged ions
  21. Anions
    negatively charged ions
  22. electrolytes
    ionic molecules that dissolve to form ions
  23. how does NaCl and H2o bond
    CL- to H+ and O- to Na+
  24. Hydrogen bonding
    •Weak bond between a H covalently bonded to one molecule and an O or N atom on the same or different molecule (such as between water molecules)
  25. Reactants
    Molecules entering the reaction
  26. Products
    the substances left by a reaction
  27. Ph scale
    Acidic- H+,0

    Basic(alkiline)- OH -, 14
  28. Neutralization
    occur in aqueous solutions containing both acids and bases
  29. synthesis
    reacants bond together to form an entirely new molecule
  30. decompostion
    bond on a single reactant molecule are broken forever
  31. catalyst
    increa the rate of the reaction, lower energy is required to get reactions started
  32. biological catalysts
    enzymes, most emzymes are portiens
  33. The rule of solubility-
    “like dissolves like”
  34. the most common solvent
  35. Hydrophilic molecules-
    attract water to their surface (polar)
  36. Hydrophobic molecules-
    repel water (nonpolar)
  37. Amphipathic molecules-
    have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
  38. Concentration-
    the amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent
  39. Acidic solutions-
    when a component dissolved in water (acid) releases excess hydrogen ions (H+)
  40. Basic solutions-
    when a component releases excess hydroxide ions (OH-)
  41. pH scale-
    measures the acid and base concentrations of solutions
  42. Inorganic chemicals-
    usually do not contain both C and H
  43. Organic chemicals-
    Carbon compounds with a basic framework of the element carbon bonded to other atoms
  44. example of a molecular formula
    glucose and fructose
  45. polysaccharide
  46. basic unit of a carb
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