antomy ex 3 notecards ch 23.txt

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antomy ex 3 notecards ch 23.txt
2010-04-05 14:51:09

ch 23
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  1. Functions of the respiratory system (6)
    gas exchange, blood pH, olfactory, sounds, excretion, ACE and blood clots
  2. Pulmonary ventilation
    air from atmosphere to lungs
  3. External respiration
    exchange between lungs and blood
  4. Internal respiration
    exchange between blood and tissues
  5. Cellular respiration
    production of ATP in cells, makes co2
  6. Blood from heart to lungs uses pulmonary ___
  7. Blood from lungs to heart uses pulmonary ___
  8. Alveoli are surrounded by pulmonary ____
  9. Type I cells produce ____
  10. Type II cells produce _____
  11. Gas exchange occurs across the _____
    respiratory membrane
  12. Boyle's Law
    As volume increases pressure decreases
  13. Gas moves from ____ to ____ pressure
    high, low
  14. Surface tension
    caused by attraction between polar water molecules; surfactant reduces surface tension to make it easier to breathe;too much will cause collapse; problem in premature babies and RDS
  15. Compliance
    high-->easy to breathe, low-->hard to breathe b/c damage to elastic tissue; causes: TB; pulmonary edema; surfactant deficiency, emphysema
  16. Airflow resistance
    airflow=change pressure/resistance
  17. Dalton's law
    total pressure = px + py + pz
  18. Henry's law
    each gas dissolves in a liquid in proportion to its partial pressure and solubility
  19. 2 muscles used to control lung volume:
    disphragm (phernic nerve), external intercostals
  20. rate of diffusion: pressure difference
    increase pressure, increase rate
  21. rate of diffusion: solubility
    increase solubility, increase rate
  22. rate of diffusion:surface area
    increase surface area, increase rate
  23. rate of diffusion: distance
    increase distance, decrease rate
  24. rate of diffusion: molecular weight
    increase mw, decrease rate
  25. rate of diffusion: temperature
    increase temperature, increase rate
  26. Emphysema
    break down of alveoli lungs, decrease sa, decrease rate, reduce compliance
  27. Pulmonary edema
    fluid build up in lungs, increase distance, decrease rate, reduce compliance
  28. Pneumotaxic area
    pons, prevents lungs from overinflating
  29. Apneustic area
    pons, prolong inspiration
  30. 2 types of chemoreceptors:
    central chemoreceptors (CNS) medulla H+ CO2, peripheral chemoreceptors (PNS) aortic (X) and carotid (IX) body H+ CO2 O2
  31. Chloride shift: external
    HCO3- in, Cl- out, less Cl-
  32. Chloride shift: internal
    HCO3- out; Cl- in, more Cl-
  33. Inspiratory area used for ________ breathing
  34. Expiratory area used for _________ breathing